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macromolecules

large molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, or lipids

monomers

small units of macromolecules present after digestion

proteins

digested into amino acids

nucleic acids

digested into nucleotides

lipids

digested into fatty acids and glycerol

carbohydrates

digested into monosaccharides

water, minerals (Ca, Na, K, etc.), vitamins

nutrients that do not need digestion

proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids

nutrients that do need digestion

mechanical (or physical) and chemical

two types of digestion

chemical digestion

type of digestion that uses enzymes to break bonds in food

mechanical (or physical) digestion

type of digestion that breaks or grinds the food

amylase

enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates in the mouth

pharynx

serves as a passageway for both food and air

esophagus

brings food by peristalsis to the stomach

peristalsis

waves of contraction in the digestive system that help to move food along

pepsin

enzyme in the stomach that digests proteins

hydrochloric acid

acid found in the stomach

small intestine

where food is absorbed into the blood

villi

structures that increases surface area inside the small intestine

small intestine

contains enzymes from the pancreas that digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids

large intestine

where water is reabsorbed into the blood from the digestive system

E. coli

bacteria found in the large intestine

pancreas

makes enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids and then sends those enzymes to the small intestine

pancreas

makes bicarbonate to neutralize acids in the small intestine

liver

makes bile

gallbladder

stores and concentrates bile

bile

emulsifies fats

emulsify

break fats into smaller droplets

lipase

enzyme that breaks fats into fatty acids and glycerol

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