What New Yorker established the "Albany Regency?"
Martin Van Buren
Who led the wing of the Jeffersonian Republicans in New York known as the Bucktails?
What was Martin Van Buren's goals as a Bucktail?
To build a new kind of political party based on mass participation
What did the New York state constitutional convention of 1821 do?
-expanded suffrage so that over 4/5 of adult males could vote
-reduced the governor's ability to gain power by rewarding influential backers
-reformed the state constitution of 1777
-established a more democratic system
What resulted from changes to voting rules in the United States by 1840?
Almost universal white manhood stuff rage
Where could free African American men vote before 1865?
5 New England States
What came to a dramatic end in the 1824 election?
The political truce of the Era of Good Feelings
With what phrase did the election of 1824 become identified in the public mind?
Though Andrew Jackson has the most popular votes, John Quincy Adams won as a result as the so called "corrupt bargain"
Who were the presidential candidates in 1824?
-John Quincy Adams
-William H. Crawford
Why was the election of 1824 controversial?
-It seemed that Jackson, who had the most popular votes, should have won.
-The whole political system was changing from one of personal to popular politics
-The party practice of selecting the candidates had broken down
-Too many candidates were allowed into the race
What developments contributed to the expansion of the right to vote in the Untied States?
-The movement westward and the equality of the frontier
-The observation of propertyless men during the War of 1812 that they could fight but not vote
-The competition for votes among politicians and party factions
-The undermining of the traditional authority in the older states
What is the period from 1817 to 1824 called?
The Era of Good Feelings
What type of candidates were favored by the new popular democratic culture of the 1820s and 1830s?
It favored candidates with name recognition and a popular image
Why was Jackson elected in 1828?
-His defeat of the Indians during the War of 1812
-His reputation as a war hero from the Battle of New Orleans
-His outsider common-man status compared to Adams
-His popular appeal
To what does the phrase "King Mob" refer?
His inauguration brought out a mob of well-wishers whose unruly behavior led critics to fear that this was the beginning of the reign of King Mob
What was the "Kitchen Cabinet?"
The informal group of personal advisors favored by President Jackson
What does the Eaton affair show in regard to Jackson?
It showed how Jackson treated disagreements as personal attacks
Who was the politician with the nickname "Cast-iron man?"
John C. Calhoun
What did Henry Clay's American System include?
-A national bank
-Federally funded improvements for railroads
-Federally funded improvements for roads and canals
-A protective tariff
Which politician became known as the great advocate for the West?
What political issue of the 1830s centered on the fundamental problem of how to balance the interests of the states against the interests of the nation?
The nullification crisis
What issue of the 1820s and 1830s came to represent conflicting sectional interests most?
The protective tariff
What was the protective tariff of 1828 called?
Tariff of Abominations
Why were Southerners particularly angry about this tariff?
It was used as a means of gaining support for Jackson in the presidential race
Why did southern planters generally oppose tariffs?
-feared Europeans might respond with tariffs on cotton
-Thought tariffs were unconstitutional
-They had to pay higher prices and provide unfair support to Washington
-They believed in the principle of free trade
Who wrote The South Carolina Exposition and Protest?
John C. Calhoun
Why did Calhoun support the doctrine of nullification?
He saw it as a way to protect the rights of minority groups
According to Van Buren, what did Jackson's agenda include?
-Destroying the 2nd bank of the US
-Moving the Indians west of the Mississippi river
-Stopping federal support of internal improvements
-ending abuses related to Internal national improvements
In what case did Chief Justice John Marshall rule in favor of Cherokee sovereignty and against Georgia?
Worcester vs Georgia
In what ways did the Cherokee seem to prove by 1830 that they has assimilated fairly thoroughly, as official United States policy recommended?
-Had a high literacy rate in English
-Tried to resolve differences by legal means
What was the forced removal of the Cherokee from the East to Indian Territory known as?
Trail of Tears
What did the removal of the Indians to the West of the Mississippi reveal?
It revealed how harsh majority rule could be
What was the purpose of Henry Clay's American System?
To enable the development of the West and a national market
After the veto of the Maysville Road Bills, how were internal improvements such as roads and canals built?
Mostly with funding from state and local governments
How did state funding for internal improvements contribute to financial instability?
Subsequent defaults on loans
What principle did the Marshall Court use in cases such as Gibbons vs. Ogden?
That the forces of supply and demand should determine outcomes
What did the dispute over whether to renew the charter of the 2nd Bank of the US become known as ?
The Bank War
Why did the 2nd Bank of the US become a divisive political issue?
Jackson portrayed the Bank as the enemy of the people and a tool of the elite
What was the first third party in the US history and what was it a sign of?
The anti-mesonic Party
Sign of the wide-spread anti-elite sentiment that helped elect Jackson
Why did the new political party of the 1830s call itself the Whig Party?
That was the name of those in England opposed to Royal absolutism
Why did the whig party and a second two-party system develop?
In opposition to Jackson's acts based on claims of greater presidential power
What was the organization in the 1830s of American political debate into two camps, each of which has to appeal to people of all classes in all regions, known as?
The Second American Party System
What names did the whigs attach to Jackson?
What was the popular name for the economic theory that says economic decisions should be made by market forces?
How did Jackson make the Bank of the United States' death certain?
He transferred governments deposits to pet banks
What was the financial collapse that followed the speculative boom after Jackson killed the Second Banks of the US called?
Panic of 1837
What was the Specie Circular?
Jackson's directive that the government would accept payment for public lands only in gold or silver
What was the nickname given to Martin Van Buren?
What caused the financial collapse of 1837?
It was partly the result of Jackson killing the second bank of the US and issuing the species circular
With what were Democrats, after Jackson, identified?
-A dislike for big businesses
-Freedom on the frontier
What did the Whigs favor?
-A strong central government
-The protective tariff
-Government advocacy of a more moral society
What was the Whigs' campaign slogan in 1840?
Tippecanoe and Tyler too
Why did the Whigs win the presidency in 1840?
-William Henry Harrison like Jackson, had been an Indian fighter
-The whigs made Harrison sound like a common man
-The whigs used massive campaign rallies and parades
-They nominated a Southerner, John Tyler for VP
Who took over after Harrison died, what were his policies like?
Vice President John Tyler and he virtually reversed the election by his policies
What elements of the American culture reflected the culture of Jacksonian America- of the common man in a hurry to get ahead?
-The scandal-filled paged of the penny papers
-The self-sufficiency advocated by Emerson's lectures
-The sancity of the methodist Christian advocate
-The artwork of western painter such as Karl Bodner and George Caitlin
Who invented the telegraph?
Samuel F B Morse
What cultural productions reflect the tendency to reform society in Jacksonian America?
-The temperance dime novels such as Whitmans, the Inebriate
-Ralph Waldo Emerson's lectures such as The American Scholar
-The paintings and national tour of George Caitlin
-The methodist Christian Advocate
Who was the author of the Leather-stocking novels?
James Fenimore Cooper
What Tennessean was the basis for almanacs offering a mix of humorous stories and tall tales?
Where was balloon-frame construction first used in the US?