Bible Ch. 2 Philosophy Test
|Colossians 2:8||See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy which depends upon human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ.|
|epistomology||the study of knowledge|
|metaphysics||the study of ultimate reality|
|cosmology||the study of the structure, origin, and design of the universe|
|ontology||the study of the existence of being|
|mind/body dualism||contends that the body is material in substance while the mind is immaterial|
|mind/body monism||contends that the mind and body are both purely material substance|
|supernaturalism||the belief that reality is more nature|
|"faith precedes reason"||every worldview begons with a basic assumption about the nature of reality that cannot be proven through the scientific method or logical deduction|
|faith vs reason issue||the spiritual man is no less reasonable than the natural; ever worldview begins with unprovable assumptions|
|Christians know truth by||certain historical evidences, special revelation, Biblical revelation|
|Hebrews 11:1-2||Now faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain orf what we do not see|
|teleological argument||the design in the universe implies a designer|
|cosmological argument||God is the "1st cause" of the universe|
|2nd Law of Thermodynamics*||states that the universe is running out of usable energy and cannot be indefinately old (the universe cannot be millions of years old as evolutionists claim for if that was the case the world would have run out of energy)|
|Law of Biogenesis||life comes from other life; makes spontaneous generation impossible|
|genetic information theory||postulates taht specified complexity, like that found in DNA, comes from a mind, never by chance|
|Anthropic Principle||the universe as well as planet earth are specifically "fine-tuned" to accomodate life|
|the assumption of science||an orderly universe|
|"mind before matter"||God before people; plan and design before creation; life from life; enlightenment form Light. The orderly universe was conceived in the orderly and rational mind of God before it was created.|
|Significance of John 1:1-4||Christians believe that ultimate reality begins with the Word amd all things that were made and the Light of Man (Jesus) followed|
|mind-body dilemma||Once someone acknowledges that the mind cannot be purely physical, the rational conclusion that follows is that something other than nature exists|
|Simillarities between Christian and Islamic Philosophy|| -theistic|
-share some biblical roots
-affirm the supernatiral and miracles
-use faith and reason to support their religious beliefs
|Kalam Cosmological Argument|| addresses 3 main issues:|
--Did the universe have a beginning or has it always existed?
--Was the beginning caused or uncaused?
--Is the agent of cause personal or impersonal?
|Muslims and Supernaturalism|| affirm the existence of:|
-the human spirit beyond death
-angels and jinn
|Muslims and Life after Death|| they believe:|
-in a final judgment
-God is able to give life to the dead
-in bodily ressurection of the dead
|Muslims and Miracles|| -Islam is founded on an event that is perceived as miraculous|
-the Qur'an teaches several miracles:
--Moses and the Rod-Serpant
--Moses and Aaron (the plagues, parting the Red Sea)
--Jesus healed the blind and lepers
|Muslim view of the prophecies in Deut. 18 & John 14|| They believe that they are speaking of Muhammad not Jesus|
--How to Refute:
~Jesus fulfilled the Deut. prophecy long before Muhammad did, and out of 5000 manuscripts of the New Testament, it is highly unlikely that every single copy translated "paracletos" wrong.
|naturalism||the philosophical belief that reality is composed solely of matter and that all phenomena can be explained in terms of natural causes (e.g. law of gravity)|
|Secular Humanist Philosophy||naturalism (whatever exists can be explained by natural causes)|
|monism||the belief that the mind is no more than a conglomeration of matter|
|dualism||the belief that the mind supersedes natter; that the mind and matter are separate|
|anthropic principle (SH)||Either of 2 principles in cosmology: a) conditions that are observed in the universe must allow the observer to exist; b) the universe must have properties that make inevitable the existence of intelligent life|
|SH view of the Supernatural|| They deny the existence of the supernatural (God, soul, personality) |
~they have been rendered obsolete by the growth of knowledge about man and his world
|SH view of the universe & it's causes|| -The physical universe came into being by accident|
-It is all that exists
-Eternal matter spontaneously generated life
-The human mind developed through an evolutionary process
~a non-sequential group of 1st causes ("the Ultimate Principles of Explanation & Intelligibility")
|Einstein's Conclusion about the universe||the "harmony of natural law reveals an intelligence of such superiority that, compared with it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection|
|What is real? (SH)||the material universe; what we can see with our own eyes|
|How do we know? (SH)||by using science and reason|
|SH answer to the mind-body problem||they say that the mind is simply a manifestation of the brain, and it is only explained in physical terms|
|Mortality (SH)||there is no life after death|
|Mind's evolution (SH)||one day a better manifestation will come|
|purpose (SH)||there is no purpose except to go as far as u can without dying of to hang onto life until death takes u|
|Marxism-Leninism Philosophy||dialectical materialism|
|"the highest products of matter organized.."|| -sensation|
|Origin of life (ML)||it spontaneously emerged form non-living, non-conscious matter billions of years ago through evolution & is a constantly evolving process resulting from the clash of opposing forces|
|"matter before mind"||the mind, thought, and consciousness evolved from matter|
|materialism||every thing is merely matter|
|dialectic||says that in everything there is a thesis (the way things are) and an antithesis (an opposition to the way things are), which must inevitably crash|
|ML source of all knowledge||science|
|"True Belief"||the way Marxists allow for scientific speculation; different from knowledge about the material world, it is speculation about things we can't see|
|ML view of the supernatural||there is none|
|Georg Hegel||the philosopher that made the dialectical process a broad philosophy|
|Dialectical materialism||In everything there is a thesis (the way things are) and an antithesis (an opposition to the way things are), which must inevitably clash. The result of the struggle and merging that comes from the clash is the synthesis, which becomes the new thesis. This new thesis will eventually attract another antithesis, and produce a new thesis.|
|reality is (ML)||a process, not "ready made"; always, eternally changing|
|Evolutionary theory (ML)||is made a universal law for both organic and inorganic matter (things other than species)|
|ML cosmology||the universe is infinite, all that will ever exist|
|ML ontology||matter is an eternal, ultimate substance, and life is a product of this non-living matter|
|ML response to the mind-body dilemma||the mind is only a reflection of matter|
|ML is different from all other philosophies because...||other philosophies are very theorectical, but Marxists want to get out and do something with theirs; evolution + revolution = ML|
|PM philosophy is seen in..||many humanities and social studies classes|
|deconstruction||a means of textual criticism that considers a text open to the reader's interpretation and laden with hidden bias, assumptions, and prejudices|
|polysemy||reading a text to ferret out its hidden or MULTIPLE meanings|
|metanarratve||a unifying story that seeks to explain how the world is (a worldview)|
|anti-realism||the belief that reality is subjectively constructed by human thought|
|correspondence theory of truth||the belief that truth corresponds to reality|
|Big T truth||universal truth|
|little t truth||truths that are particular to a society or group of people and limited to individual perception|
|PM- Subjective truth vs universal truth||the 1st common theme of PM is the denial fo universal, objective truth|
|PM view of language|| stands for the socially constructed order; means whatever the society we live in allows|
~words no longer have set meanings and definitions & creates much chaos (Confucious quote)
|PM construction of reality||it is socially constructed|
|PM conflict w/ SH & Xn philosophy||PM says that there is no objective truth & thus it is not knowable, but SH & Xn philosophy say that it is|
|Nietzche- "God is dead"||final outcome is that everything becomes undecidable|
|PM inconsistencies||-They claim that "reality" is constructed by language, but real life isn't open to infinite interpretation; it is not a matter of our personal interpretation. |
-Deconstructionists believe in authorial intent when they are the author, but not when it comes to other's works
-They use set definitions for words to communicate their ideas
|Summary of PM Philosophy||1) Moving away from knowledge brought about by universal science; Move towards knowledge brought about locally|
2) Rejection of universal reason and rationalization; reason can only be understood in a particular tradition, narrative, institution, or practice
3) Reject emphasis on unifying, universal ideas; favor emphasizing difference, plurality, fragmentation, complexity
4) Rejection of idea of an autonomous person with a rational consciousness. People seen only in terms of their place in culture, language, history, and gendered body
5) God and meaning of history are unbelievable
6) Language stands for socially constructed order; meaning is decided by our society
|New Age philosophy||non-naturalism|
|Zen||a branch of Mahayana Buddhism that believes enlightnment can be attained through meditation, self-contemplation|
|Gaia||Mother Earth; the idea that the planet earth and the whole universe is a living organism|
|non-naturalism||the belief that everything is a part of God and in essence, spiritual. The things that we can see and feel are only a manifestation of spirit, and all mattter will melt away when universal consciousness is achieved|
|personal introspection||looking inside yourself|
|NA find truth/knowledge through||getting in touch with one's higher self, our God-force within|
|NA definition of reality||the supernatural world|
|NA influences in America||The Matrix; pop culture|
|NA view of looking outside oneself||giving your personal power away|
|Similarity of NA, ML, & SH||they are all monistic (all reality is one)|
|Difference in NA, ML, & SH monism||In NA ultimate reality is spiritual rather than material, while ML & SH deny the spiritual|
|NA purpose of knowing||it is useful only as an experience, which is getting in touch with our godhood|
|altercation||based on emotions and yelling at one another|
|argument||where we draw conclusions from various premises|
|assertion||when someone states an opinion without backing it up with support|
|the law of non-contradiction|| a statement (a proposition) cannot be true and not true at the same time and in the same respect|
--Ex.: Married bachelor
|equivocation||when people use different definitions for the same word|
|appeal to pity||when one tries to persuade another by making you feel sorry for an individual or group|
|ad hominem||when someone avoids what someone is saying, and instead attacks his character|
|appeal to ignorance||to say something is tru because is has not been proven false and vice versa|
|red herring||introducing an irrelevant side issue to distract from the original point|
|hasty generalizations||when a person gathers too little information to support his conclusion|
|sweeping generalizations||when someone takes a general rule and applies it to all instances absolutely|
|begging the question||when one simply assumes waht he is trying to prove is true; aka talking in circles|
|faulty dilemma||when someone says there are only a certain number of options when there are more|
|complex question||"the loaded question"; asking a yes/no question that is simply not fair to ask because it cannot be answered with a simple yes of no because it is illogical and not within the realm of reality|
|false analogy||comparing two things that are relevantly dissimilar or drawing a conclusion that does not follow|
|false cause||when someone concludes that just because two things happen in chronological order, the first caused the second|
|straw man||when someone misrepresents another's view to discredit it|
|appeal to majority||when someone relies on majority opinion to determine right or wrong|
|appeal to tradition||when someone appeals to what is "the old way" or to what is "the new way" to establish truth|
|fallacies of ambiguity||"one of the most important ground rules for clear communication is clear definitions"|
|fallicies of relevance||when something irrelevant to the question is added to try to persuade|
|fallacies of presumption||where someone holds to unjustified conclusions by denying, overlooking, or distorting facts|
|Questions to ask an opponent||1) What do you mean by that?|
2) How did you come to that conclusion?
3) How do you know that to be true?
4) Why do you believe you are right?
5) Where do you get your information?
6) What happens if you are wrong?
7) Can you give me 2 sources that disagree with you & tell me why they disagree?
8) Why is this significant?
9) How do I know you are telling me the truth?
10) Can you give me an alternative explanation for this phenomenon?
|Tactics used by the media||-What is reported?|
-Which sides are presented?
-What is the tone of the report?
-What underlying assumptions does the newsstory hold?
-What are the sources; how are they characterized?
-How are words used to describe people or organizations?
-How are actions descibed?
-What statistics are used?
-What is left out of the newsstory?
-Where is the reader lead into faulty reasoning?
|philosophy||from the Greek "philo" (the love of) and "sophia" (wisdom); the study of what is real and how we know what is real, in areas such as existence, knowledge, values, and reason|
|Where PM is seen in pop culture|| Literature: Deconstructionism|
Philosophy: Relativism, pragmatism
Art: Dada, surrealism, pop-nihilism
History: Revisionist (anit-metanarrative)
|pre-modern period|| -before 1600|
-strong belief in the supernatural
-authority of oral and written traditions to give "Big Story"
-Truth is objective, corresponds to reality, and may be known via:
--Faculties (reason and senses)
|Modern Period|| -1600 to 1960|
-Skepticism of the supernatural
-Authority of observation, human reason, and science to give "Big Story"
--Belief if progress
-Truth is objective, corresponds to reality, and may be known via:
--Faculties (reason and senses)
|Postmodern Period|| -Skeptical to all claims to knowledge|
-Rejects all authorities claiming to give a "Big Story"
--Disbelief in progress
-Truth and reality are only subjective constructs attained via:
--Experiences (personal lives)