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1.The upper respiratory tract extends

from the nose through the trachea.
from the nose through the pharynx.
from the nose through the larynx.
from the nose through the alveoli
from the nose through the lungs.

from the nose through the larynx.

2.The nose is divided into right and left halves termed the:
nasal cavities.
nasal fossae.
nasal septa.
nasal vestibules.
nasal apertures.

nasal fossae.

3.Which two ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages?
vestibular and vocal ligaments
laryngeal and corniculate
corniculate and cricoid
cricoids and arytenoids
thyrohyoid and cricoids

vestibular and vocal ligaments

4.The most numerous cells in the lungs are called
mucosal cells.
type I alveolar cells.
type II alveolar cells.
dust cells.
vibrissae.

dust cells.

5.Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by
the aorta.
the pulmonary artery.
the pulmonary vein.
the inferior vena cava.
the superior vena cava.

the pulmonary artery.

6. Which of the following cartilages is largest?
the corniculate cartilage
the epiglottic cartilage
the thyroid cartilage
the cricoid cartilage
the arytenoid cartilage

the thyroid cartilage

7.____ states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases.
Boyle's law
Valsalva's law
Dalton's law
Charles's law
Henry's law

Dalton's law

8.The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is called
vital capacity.
inspiratory reserve volume.
expiratory reserve volume.
residual volume.
inspiratory capacity.

inspiratory reserve volume.

9.Vital capacity consists of
inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory volume.
inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume.
expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume.
expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.
respiratory volume + tidal volume

expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.

10.Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
tachypnea
dyspnea
orthopnea
hyperpnea
Kussmaul respiration

Kussmaul respiration

11.Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except
carbaminohemoglobin.
carbonic acid.
carbonate.
bicarbonate ions.
dissolved gas.

carbonate.

12.The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ___ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen.
sodium
potassium
nitrogen
hydrogen
chloride

hydrogen

13.Which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?
oxygen
water vapor
nitrogen
carbon dioxide
hydrogen

nitrogen

14.Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _____ oxygen molecules.
1
2
3
4
5

4

15.Normally the systemic arterial blood has a Po2 of _____ mm Hg, a Pco2 of _____ mm Hg, and a pH of _____.
40; 95; 7.4
95; 40; 7.4
7.4; 40; 95
95; 7.4; 40
40; 7.4; 95

95; 40; 7.4

16. Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
apoxia
hypoxia
anoxia
cyanosis
eupnea

hypoxia

17.Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?
hypoxemic hypoxia
ischemic hypoxia
anemic hypoxia
histotoxic hypoxia
idiopathic hypoxia

ischemic hypoxia

18.In ___, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis.
pneumonia
dyspnea
pneumothorax
tuberculosis
rhinitis

tuberculosis

19.Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?
squamous-cell carcinoma
oat-cell carcinoma
adenocarcinoma
pulmonary edema
cor pulmonale

adenocarcinoma

20.Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?
apnea
adult respiratory distress syndrome
acute bronchitis
acute rhinitis
asthma

acute rhinitis

21.Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ___ of the respiratory tract.
squamous alveolar cells
great alveolar cells
the pleurae
ciliated cells
goblet cells

goblet cells

22.Among its other purposes, the Valsalva maneuver is used
to aid in defecation and urination.
as part of the procedure for giving CPR to a person in respiratory arrest.
to ventilate the lungs during eupnea.
to expel more than the usual tidal volume from the lungs.
to clear carbon monoxide from the body and replace it with oxygen.

to aid in defecation and urination

23.Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is _____ mL/min.
2,400
3,600
4,200
5,600
6,400

4,200

24.Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
It controls the pH of body fluids.
It promotes the flow of lymph and venous blood.
It helps regulate blood pressure.
It assists in the synthesis of vasodilators.
It helps with defecation.

It assists in the synthesis of vasodilators.

25.Which of the following does not have cilia?
the nasal cavity
the trachea
the bronchi
terminal bronchioles
respiratory bronchioles

respiratory bronchioles

26.Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except
the pharynx.
the epiglottis.
the oral cavity.
the tongue.
the lips.

the epiglottis.

27.In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
atmospheric pressure
respiratory rate
bronchiole diameter
quantity of surfactant
the diaphragm

bronchiole diameter

28. A gangrenous diabetic ulcer can be treated with which of the following?
hyperventilation
hyperbaric oxygen
hypercaloric intake
hypoxic drive
hyperoxidation

hyperbaric oxygen

29.Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
an increase in membrane thickness
an increase in alveolar surface area
an increase in respiratory rate
a decrease in membrane thickness
a decrease in nitrogen solubility

an increase in membrane thickness

30. Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?
epinephrine
fever
thyroid hormone
low pH
erythrocyte count

erythrocyte count

31.Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
hemoglobin
carboxyhemoglobin
carbonic anhydrase
bisphosphoglycerate
carbaminoreductase

carbonic anhydrase

32. In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?
5% to 10%
10% to 15%
20% to 25%
30% to 40%
70% to 85%

20% to 25%

33.___ is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum.
Asthma
Oat-cell carcinoma
Atelectasis
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema

Chronic bronchitis

34. Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?
sickle-cell disease
emphysema
squamous-cell carcinoma
asthma
atelectasis

sickle-cell disease

35.A lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is
cor pulmonale.
pulmonary hemosiderosis.
emphysema.
atelectasis.
collapsed lung.

emphysema.

36.Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in
a Bohr effect.
adult respiratory distress syndrome.
pneumothorax.
atelectasis.
Ondine's curse.

Ondine's curse.

37.Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called
decompression sickness.
hyperbaric disease.
cerebral embolism.
pulmonary barotrauma.
pulmonary edema.

cerebral embolism.

38.The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in
the pontine respiratory group.
the dorsal respiratory group.
the ventral respiratory group.
the medulla oblongata.
the pons.

the medulla oblongata.

39.The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ___ than in any other form.
carbaminohemoglobin
carboxyhemoglobin
bicarbonate ions
dissolved CO2 gas
bisphosphocarbonate

bicarbonate ions

40.Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is ______ mL.
2,400
3,000
3,800
4,700
5,800

4,700

41.____________ is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body.
Ingestion
Compaction
Digestion
Absorption
Secretion

Absorption

42. The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called
mesenteries.
mucosae.
submucosae.
muscularis mucosae.
muscularis externa.

mesenteries.

43.These nutrients are all absorbed without being digested except
water.
vitamins.
proteins.
minerals.
cholesterol.

proteins

44.These are all accessory organs of the digestive system except
tongue.
liver.
pancreas.
salivary glands.
spleen.

spleen.

45.Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?

- lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

- serosa, lamina propria, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa

- mucosa, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa, lamina propria

- mucosa, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria

- mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria, serosa

lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

46.The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by
the falciform ligament.
the mesentery.
the greater omentum.
the lesser omentum.
the esophageal hiatus.

the mesentery.

47.Chemical digestion breaks down ____________ into _____________.
proteins; nucleotides
amino acids; proteins
polysaccharides; amino acids
nucleic acids; nucleotides
fatty acids; cholesterol

nucleic acids; nucleotides

48.The ___________ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow and its neurons are found in the ____________.
autonomic nervous system; serosa
central nervous system; muscularis externa and muscularis mucosae
enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
visceral sensory division; muscularis externa and submucosa
visceral motor division; mucosa and submucosa

enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa

49.The surface of the tongue is covered with ____________ stratified squamous epithelium, and has bumps called __________________, site of taste buds.
keratinized; lingual papillae
keratinized; lingual frenulum
nonkeratinized; lingual papillae
nonkeratinized; tonsils
nonkeratinized; vallate papillae

nonkeratinized; lingual papillae

50.Infants have ________________ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have ________________ permanent teeth.
20; 32
16; 20
28; 20
32; 20
32; 32

20; 32

51.From superficial to deep, these are the structures found in a typical tooth.
cementum, root canal, enamel
enamel, root canal, dentin
dentin, enamel, cementum
enamel, dentin, pulp
crown, enamel, dentin

enamel, dentin, pulp

52.These are normally found in saliva except
mucus.
lysozyme.
amylase.
lipase.
protease.

protease.

53.The ______________ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland; whereas the ______________ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland.
Lingual; labial
Submandibular; lingual
Submandibular; sublingual
Sublingual; parotid
Lingual; sublingual

Submandibular; lingual

54.The swallowing center is located in
the mouth.
the oropharynx.
the esophagus.
the medulla oblongata.
the enteric nervous system.

the medulla oblongata.

55. Acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally prevented by

pharyngeal constrictors.
the upper esophageal sphincter.
the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).
esophageal glands.
pharyngeal and buccal sphincters.

the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).

56. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by ____________ cells.
mucous
regenerative (stem)
parietal
chief
enteroendocrine

parietal

57. ____________, which is secreted by ___________ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption.
Intrinsic factor; parietal
Bile salts; chief
Lecithin; hepatic
Hydrochloric acid; parietal
Enterokinase; mucous

Intrinsic factor; parietal

58. ______________ is a hormone, whereas ________________ is an enzyme.
Enterokinase; pepsin
Gastrin; secretin
Gastrin; cholecystokinin (CCK)
Gastric lipase; histamine
Secretin; pepsin

Secretin; pepsin

59._____________ is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions.
The cephalic phase
The gastric phase
The intestinal phase
The gastrointestinal phase
The mesenteric phase

The gastric phase

60. The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is
the pancreas.
the stomach.
the liver.
the spleen.
the small intestine.

the liver.

61. A hepatic triad consists of
right, left, and common hepatic ducts.
common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and bile duct.
the hepatic portal vein and two hepatic ducts.
bile ductule, branch of hepatic artery, and branch of hepatic portal vein.
a central vein, hepatic lobule, and hepatic sinusoid.

bile ductule, branch of hepatic artery, and branch of hepatic portal vein.

62.Of the following components of bile, only _____________ has/have a digestive function.
bile salts
bilirubin
cholesterol
phospholipids
neutral fats

bile salts

63. Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone
insulin.
cholecystokinin (CCK).
secretin.
glucagon.
gastrin.

cholecystokinin (CCK).

64.Which of these is not a component of the pancreatic juice?
trypsinogen
chymotrypsinogen
deoxyribonuclease
sodium bicarbonate
enterokinase

enterokinase

65.Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?
triglycerides
amino acids
glucose
minerals
water-soluble vitamins

triglycerides

66. The migrating motor complex
milks the chyme toward the colon.
allows a bolus to move down the esophagus.
churns and mixes residue in the descending colon.
churns and mixes a bolus with gastric juices.
propels pancreatic juice down the pancreatic duct.

milks the chyme toward the colon.

67.The ______________ of the small intestine is/are similar to the _________________ of the stomach.
villi; pyloric glands
rugae; Peyer patches
intestinal crypts; gastric pits
goblet cells; parietal cells
pyloric sphincter; ileocecal valve

intestinal crypts; gastric pits

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