AP Biology Chapter 6

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chapter 6 questions for exam review

light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in living cells

The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that

seperate the major organelles so that their particular functions can be determined

A primary objective of cell fractionation is to

nucleus, mitochondria, ribosmes

Which of the following CORRECTLY lists the order in which cellular components will be found in the pellet when homogenized cells are treated with increasingly rapid spins in a centrifuge?

an endoplasmic riticulum

All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT

plant cells contain a large vacuole that reduces the volume of the cytoplasm

The colume enclosed by the plasma membrane of plant cells is often much larger than the corresponding volume in animal cells. The most reasonable explanation for this observation is that...

the need for a surface area of sufficient area to allow the cell's function

Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cells?

Proteins

Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?

smooth endoplasmic riticulum

Wchich type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholpids, and steroids/.

rough ER

Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?

All of the above correctly describe polar characteristics of the Golgi funcion

The Golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to its structure and function. Which of the following statements CORRECTLY describes this polarity?

Lysosome

In animal cells, hydrolytic enzymes are packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles functions in this compartmentalization?

Proteins that are excreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes that are bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane

Which of the following statements CORRECTLY describes some aspect of protein disposal from prokaryotic cells?

The Lysosome

Tay-Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large and complex lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition?

smooth ER

The liver is incolved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?

Golgi apparatus

Which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?

Lysosome

Which of the following contains hydrolytic enzymes?

Vacuole

Which of the following is a compartment that often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?

Mitochondrion

Which is one of the main energy transformers of cells?

Mitochondrion

Which of the following contains its own DNA and ribosomes?

Peroxisome

Which of the following contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen?

Chloroplasts

Grana, thylakoids, and stroma are all components found in...

Mitochondria and cloroplasts

Organelles other than the nucleus that contain DNA include

On the inner plasma membrane

The chemical reactions involved in respiration are virtually identical between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotic cells, ATP is synthesized primarily on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Where are the corresponding reactions likely to ovvut in prokaryotic respiration?

chloroplasts and mitochondria

A biologist ground up some plant leaf cells and then centrifuged the mixture to fractionate the organelles. Organelles in one of the heavier fractions could produce ATP in the light, while organelles in the lighter fraction could produce ATP in the dark. The heavier and lighter fractions are most likely to contain, respectively, ...

a plant or an animal

A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from...

The inner mitochondrial membrane is highly folded

The mitochondrion, like the nucleus, has two or more membrane layers. How is the innermost of these layers different from that of the nucleus?

Its structure is not derived from the ER

Why isn't the mitochondrion classified as part of the endomembrane system?

Transfer the hydrogen to oxygen molecules

The peroxisome gets its name from its interaction with hydrogen peroxide. If a liver cell is detoxifying alcohol and some other poisons, it does so by removal of hydrogen from the molecules. What, then, do the enzymes of the peroxisome do?

They split in two after they are too large

How does the cell multiply its peroxisomes?

cytoskeletons

Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?

Microfilaments

Cells can be described as having a cytoskeleton of internal structures that contribute to the shape, organization, and movement of the cell. Which of the following are part of the cytoskeleton?

Mitochondrion

Of the following, which cell structure would most likely be visible with a light microscope that has been manyfactured to the maximum resolving power possible?

Natural selection for motility must select for microtubular arrays in circular patterns

Centrioles, cilia, flagella, and basal bodies have remarkable similar structural elements and arrangemets. This leads us to which of the following as a probable hypothesis?

Sperm, larynx, and trachea

If an individual has abnormal microtubules, due to a hereditary condition, in which organs or tissues would you expect the dysfunction?

Ameboid movement, formation of cleavage furrows, and contracting of muscle cells

Microfilaments are well known for their role in which of the following?

Plant cell walls

All of the following serve an important role in determining or maintaining the structure of plant cells. Which of the following are distinct from the others in their composition?

Cell wall: support, protection

Which of the following relationships between cell structures and their respective functions is correct?

Extracellular matrix & Golgi apparatus

A cell lacking the ability to make and secrete glycoproteins would most likely be deficient in its

Integrins

The extracellular matrix is thought to participate in the regulation of animal cell behavior by communicating information from the outside to the inside of the cell via which of the following?

Gap junctions

Plasmodesmata in plant cells are MOST similar in funtion to which of the following structures in animal cells?

Gap junctions

Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through

Large molecules, especially proteins, do not readily get through one, much less two adjacent cell membranes

Which of the following makes it necessary for animal cells, although they have no cell walls to have intercellular junctions?

Bound ribosomes generally synthesize membrane proteins and secretory proteins

Which statement CORRECTLY characterizes bound ribosomes?

Chloroplast

Which structure is NOT part of the endomembrane system?

ER-->Golgi-->vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

Cells of the pancreas will incorporate radioactively labeled amino acids into proteins. This "tagging" of newly synthesized proteins enables a researcher to track their location. In this case, we are tracking an enxyme secreted by pancreatic cells. What is its most likely pathway?

mitochondrion

Which structure is common to plant AND animal cells?

Movement of the cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move more relative to each other.

Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is TRUE?

Mechanical signals of the ECM can alter the cytoskeleton, which can alter intracellular signaling

Recent evidence shows that the extracellular matrix can take part in regulating the expression of genes. A likely possibility for this might be which of the following?

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