Chapter 13 Study Guide
|This genetically engineered organisms converts starch into simple sugar.||alpha-amylase|
|What is the central dogma of biology?||DNA-Transcription-RNA-Translation-Protein|
|____________________ are naturally occuring enzymes found in bacteria and other organisms used to slice DNA.||restriction enzymes|
|How many restriction enzymes have been found?||over 600|
|_______________________ are used as molecular scissors to cut DNA in a precise and predictable manner.||Restriction enzymes|
|DNA fingerprinting has been used in criminal investigations because||DNA analysis is believed to allow investigators to distinguish body cells of different individuals, who are unlikely to have the same DNA.|
|The first mamal to be cloned was a sheep named _____________.||Dolly|
|Selective breeding is||passing on desired characteristics to the next generation.|
|What process is used to seperate DNA fragments?||gel electrophoresis|
|Why do breeders induce or cause mutations?||to create genetic variability|
|This is the substance that makes the gel used in gel electrophoresis.||agarose|
|Restriction enzymes are specific in their identification of||base sequences.|
|Plasmids||are circular pieces of bacterial DNA.|
|This is the crossing of unlike individuals to get the best of both organisms.||hybridization|
|Recombinant DNA is formed by joining DNA molecules||from two different sources.|
|This is the crossing of similar organisms to maintain desired characteristics||inbreeding|
|The use of genetic engineering to transfer human genes into bacteria||allows the bacteria to produce human proteins.|
|What types of evidence can be used for DNA fingerprinting?||saliva, hair follicles, semen, blood and skin|
|What methods do breeders use to cause mutations?||chemicals and radiation|
| ESSAY |
The FDA is running out of insulin for diabetics. Draw the process that they must go through to make more insulin. Be sure to give directions for each step. (no set answer)
There has been a break-in at Casey's and you have to solve the crime. First, tell me what source of DNA the criminal left behind. Next, tell me the 4 steps of the DNA fingerprinting process youmust take to sove the crime.
| DNA-Blood, hair follicle, semen, saliva, skin|
1. Amplify the sample using PCR.
2. Add restriction enzymes.
3. Run Gel electrophoresis.
4. Compare banding patterns.
|Scientists attach dye to nitrogenous bases so that they can study DNA sequences.||true|
|Polyploidy has been more successful in plants than animals.||true|
|Gel electrophoresis is a process that allows you to make thousands or millions of copies of a gene.||false|
|Smaller particles move slower during gel electrophoresis.||false|
|Alternating current electricity must be used during gel elctrophoresis.||false|
|During cell transformation, a cell undergoes meiosis.||false|