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Human Development: Personal, Social and Moral Development

Psychosocial

The relationship of an individual's needs to the social environment.

Eriksons 8 Stages

Each having its own developmental crisis, one healthy and one unhealthy way to resolve.

Trust vs. Mistrust

Stage 1: Birth to 18 months
o Form a loving, trusting relationship with caregiver
o Response to needs will determine who child can depend on
o Needs to trust the world in order to venture into it

Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt

Stage 2: 18 months to 3 years old
o Self-control and self-confidence begin to develop
o Doing things on their own
o Too controlling parents will restrict the child's self-control
o Children need encouragement and support or they experience shame.

Initiative vs. Guilt

Stage 3: 3 to 6 years old
o More assertive, independent
o Plans and undertakes their own action
o Self-control must be exercised for some actions
o Adults must refrain from unnecessary interfering

Industry vs. Inferiority

Stage 4: 6 to 12 years old
o Deal with new demands, many of which come from school
o Sense of industry, perseverance and completing jobs can lead to satisfaction
o Learn to function in a number of settings (home, school, etc.)
o Peers become increasingly important

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Stage 5: Adolescence
o Focused on answering "Who am I?", forms the basis for adulthood
o Organization of drives, abilities, beliefs and personal history
o Development of a personal identity
o Role Confusion
• Foreclosure (do not experiment, just choose an identity, parents lifestyle or wishes)
• Diffusion (make no choices, don't have an interest)
• Moratorium (Delays making decisions, can be good or bad)

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Stage 6: Young Adulthood
o Be able to develop intimate relationships or suffer feelings of isolation.

Generativity vs. Stagnation

Stage 7: Middle Adulthood
o Through parenting or mentoring, healthy adults want to support next generation.

Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Stage 8: Late Adulthood
o Reflection on and acceptance of ones life
o Sense of acceptance for healthy individuals, fulfillment.

Morality

Empathy and concern for others, allows us to build societies.

Inductive Discipline

Be positive, clarify expectations, and encourage
Beware of your words and actions, how the child will view themselves after they have done something that is morally wrong.

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