The relationship of an individual's needs to the social environment.
Eriksons 8 Stages
Each having its own developmental crisis, one healthy and one unhealthy way to resolve.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Stage 1: Birth to 18 months
o Form a loving, trusting relationship with caregiver
o Response to needs will determine who child can depend on
o Needs to trust the world in order to venture into it
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Stage 2: 18 months to 3 years old
o Self-control and self-confidence begin to develop
o Doing things on their own
o Too controlling parents will restrict the child's self-control
o Children need encouragement and support or they experience shame.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Stage 3: 3 to 6 years old
o More assertive, independent
o Plans and undertakes their own action
o Self-control must be exercised for some actions
o Adults must refrain from unnecessary interfering
Industry vs. Inferiority
Stage 4: 6 to 12 years old
o Deal with new demands, many of which come from school
o Sense of industry, perseverance and completing jobs can lead to satisfaction
o Learn to function in a number of settings (home, school, etc.)
o Peers become increasingly important
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Stage 5: Adolescence
o Focused on answering "Who am I?", forms the basis for adulthood
o Organization of drives, abilities, beliefs and personal history
o Development of a personal identity
o Role Confusion
• Foreclosure (do not experiment, just choose an identity, parents lifestyle or wishes)
• Diffusion (make no choices, don't have an interest)
• Moratorium (Delays making decisions, can be good or bad)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Stage 6: Young Adulthood
o Be able to develop intimate relationships or suffer feelings of isolation.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Stage 7: Middle Adulthood
o Through parenting or mentoring, healthy adults want to support next generation.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Stage 8: Late Adulthood
o Reflection on and acceptance of ones life
o Sense of acceptance for healthy individuals, fulfillment.
Empathy and concern for others, allows us to build societies.
Be positive, clarify expectations, and encourage
Beware of your words and actions, how the child will view themselves after they have done something that is morally wrong.