daughter of the empress of Austria, married to Louis XVI at age 15; accused of lavish spending that added to the national debt. One of the first victims of the Reign of Terror. Was executed in 1793.
Bands of Jesus
During the Thermidorean Reaction, these gangs of youths dragged known Jacobins from prisons and murdered them, much as alleged royalists had been murdered during September massacres of 1792.
these middle-classmen won a great victory in the French Revolution in that they were granted access to political power due to the fact that they owned property under the new Constitution of the Year III
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published "Reforms on the Revolution in France", one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited privileges in general, specifically those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Condemned the revolution. Glorified unrepresentative Parliament and predicted the French Revolution would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
Committee of Public Safety
Executive committee established by National Convention that was supposed to supervise the elimination of the "enemies of the revolution", under the leadership of Robespierre. Developed a relationship with the sans-culotte of Paris that mostly just touched the surface.
Formed by the Legislative Assembly under the persuasion from the Paris Commune for the purpose of writing a democratic constitution. Its first act was to declare France a republic. After Louis XVI's death, it declares war on the Britain, Holland, and Spain. Finally approved of a democratic constitution, but it never was acted out. Advocated de-Christianization during the Reign of Terror.
Cult of the Supreme Being
a religion based on deism devised by Maximilien Robespierre, who considered the worship of "Reason" to be too abstract. Intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution. Reflected Rousseau's vision of a civic religion that would induce morality among citizens.
French revolutionary leader who had served briefly on the Committee of Public safety before Robespierre joined. Stormed the Paris Bastille and supported the execution of Louis XVI, but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
Convention creates a new calendar starting from the year 1 and consisted of a holiday every 10 days. Churches were closed and clergy members were persecuted, and sometimes forced to marry, or were killed. The Cathedral of Notre Dame becomes the Temple of Reason.
(1795-9) a five-person executive body created under the Constitution of Year III during the Thermidorean Reaction. Chosen by the Elders from a list the Council of Five Hundred had submitted. Property qualifications applied. Had difficulty dealing with the suppression of the sans-culottes, the Two-Thirds law, and the Catholic royalist (supporters of monarchy) revival. Came to depend on power of army to govern France.
The Girondists pass a measure requiring this group to return to France or suffer the loss of property.
(1792-7) consisted of the nations of Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, Sardinia. Drove the French from the Austrian Netherlands, and peasants in Western France revolted against being drafted into the army. They were supported and encouraged in their resistance by devout Catholics, royalists, and foreign agents. Attempted to protect their social structures, political systems, and economic interests against the aggression of the revolution.
a group of Jacobins named as so due to the fact that many came from the department of the Gironde in southwest France. They were determined to oppose the forces of counterrevolution. Lead the Legislative Assembly to declare war against Austria and Prussia. More conservative than their fellow Jacobins, the Mountain, and did not wish for Louis to be executed, but the decision was overruled by the Mountain. Later forced out of the Convention by the sans-culottes in 1793, and executed. After the execution of Robespierre, those held in prisons were allowed to return to their seats in the Legislative Assembly.
An instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles. Introduced as a method of "humane" execution. Used during the French Revolution against thousands of individuals, especially during the Reign of Terror.
These were members of a radical revolutionary club of the Third Estate during the French Revolution. Conspired to take control of the government and make France a republic. Drew their ideas from Rousseau. Sought representative government and favored an unregulated economy. During the
Thermidorean Reaction, its members were forbidden to correspond with each other. They were executed and beat by the "bands of Jesus" in the "white terror" of the Thermidorean Reaction.
Law of 22 Prairial
(1794) Passed by Robespierre, this permitted the revolutionary tribunal to convict suspects without hearing substantial evidence. The Reign of Terror grew even more fanatical.
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the Constitution of 1791. Replaced the National Assembly. Created to face challenges of Civil Constitution of the Clergy, king's flight to Varennes, and Declaration of Pillnitz.
Levee en Masse
a military requisition issued by Larazre Carnot of the Committee of Public Safety on the entire population of France, conscripting males into the army and directing economic production to military purposes. France's army became an army of one million men, the largest in history.
had favored the wars of France against Prussia and Austria to strengthen to power of the monarchy; hoped foreign armies would defeat the French and restore the Old Regime. Later put on trial as a "Citizen Capet". Was convicted for conspiring against the liberty of the people and security of the state. However, was condemned to death only by a small handful of people. Executed before his queen.
National Constituent Assembly
was abolished in September of 1791, having completed its tasks of reconstructing the government and the administration of France. Passed a measure that forbid its members from joining the newly formed Legislative Assembly.
William Pitt the Younger
Prime minister of Britain who had unsuccessfully supported reform of Parliament and now turned against reform and popular movements. His government worked to suppress reform in Britain. Secured Parliamentary approval for acts suspending the habeas corpus and making writing of certain ideas treasonable. Tried to curb the freedom of the press with less success.
"Reflections on the Revolution in France"
written by Edmund Burke in opposition to the French
Revolution. Condemned the reconstruction of the French administration of a blind rationalism that ignored the historic realities of political development and the complexities of social relations. He also predicted the future turmoil as people without political experience tried to govern France, predicted the deaths of the king and queen, and forecast that the revolution would end in military despotism.
Reign of Terror
(1793-4) Emerged from the need to protect the revolution that came from the fact that France was at war with so many nations that were trying to do harm to the revolution. Many systematically executed under the command of Robespierre if seen as a threat to the revolution. Came to a close with Robespierre's execution, when the Convention took control over the Committee of Public Safety.
Republic of Virtue
(1793-4) Robespierre's desire to reshape France based on the idea of civic virtue from the writings of Rousseau, in which the sacrifice of one's self and one's interest for the good of the republic would replace selfish aristocracy and monarchical corruption. Manifested itself in the renaming of streets, republican attire of the san-culottes, absence of wigs, in suppression of plays and etc. that were not republic, and attack against crimes, esp. prostitution. Core value was the championing of public good or general will. Robespierre therefore advocated the use of terror in defending democracy.
aka "The Incorruptible"; the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. Was the dominant figure of the Committee of Public Safety by late 1793. He set out to build a republic of virtue. Depended largely on the support of the sans-culottes of Paris. Begins to execute his fellow republican colleagues in 1794. Destroyed his rivals without creating any supporters for himself, which lead to his execution.
French philosophe who emphasized the ideals of general will, equality, popular sovereignty and civic virtue. Impacted the ideas of the Jacobins.
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages through price controls. Believed that all people have a right to subsistence (continuing to exist) and resented most forms of inequality. Anti-monarchical and pro-republican. Gained the most influence in Paris at meetings.
(1792) Paris Commune killed about 1200 people from the city jails because they were assumed to be counterrevolutionaries. Some were aristocrats/clergy, but most were common criminals.
This was the tempering of the revolution in France after the execution of Robespierre. It set up a new constitutional regime. The influence of the wealthy middle class and professional people replaced the sans-culottes. They submitted a conservative document that provided for a bicameral legislative government heavily favoring property owners. The Paris Commune outlawed, the Jacobin club was closed, and the radicals involved in terror were attacked. Laws making divorce easier for women were repealed, and women were given less freedom than before. Featured a revival of Catholic worship and the decaying of the republic of virtue.
were hated by the sans-culottes, who believed the early members of this group only wanted to share political power, social prestige and economic security with the aristocracy.
Treaties of Basel
(1795) treaties by which France made peace with Spain and Prussia
Region in Western France where royalists (supporters of monarchy) and priests led peasants in rebellion against the revolution.
The French War against _________ in 1792 was:
1. favored by Louis XVI, who believed it would restore the ancient regime
2. responsible for a second revolution that would overthrow the monarchy and establish a republic
3. a factor in radicalizing the revolution
4. supported by the Girondists, who believed it would preserve the revolution from domestic enemies
"Liberty, equality, and fraternity"
The phrase you associate with the French Revolution is:
The ________ were heavily influenced by Enlightenment philosophes such as Voltaire and Rousseau.
The achievements of the _________ include:
1. abolition of slavery
2. franchise given to all adult males
3. adaption of the metric system
4. decreeing the law of the maximum--fixed prices on essentials and raised wages.
Among the legacies of the ______________ are:
1. diffusion of republican ideals
2. the idea of "right" (conservative) and "left" (radical) in policies
3. citizen armies
4. metric system
Committee of Public Safety
_____________________ was able to defeat the armies of the First Coalition by harnessing:
1. modern nationalization
2. revolutionary terror
3. planned economy
The following are true of _______________:
1. opposed 1792 war with the First Coalition
2. was the dominant figure on the Committee of Public Safety
3. led the terror against republican political figures
The ___________________ led to the following:
1. Paris Commune outlawed
2. Executions of former Jacobins begins (White Terror)
3. These executions were carried out by young aristocrats (bands of Jesus)
....and resulted in:
1. a new constitution
2. the closing of the Paris Jacobin club
3. the reduction of the political power of the sans-culottes
4. a retreat from the radical revolution
The effects of the __________________ include:
1. catholicism was seriously challenged
2. people of lower birth had influence
3. conscripted armies defeated professional armies and Europe suffered decades of war
_______________________ embraced the following ideology:
1. wholehearted support of the republican government
2. renunciation of self-interested politics
3. foreign and domestic enemies of the revolution must be eliminated
4. creation of a civic religion - The Cult of the Supreme Being (1794)
___________ benefited from the French Revolution because they were given land.
France continued to use the guillotine until the late ______'s.
The guillotine was introduced to France in ______.
About _______ people were executed during the last 132 days of the Reign of Terror.