Most Visited Planet
What causes red color on Mars?
Iron Oxide (rust on earth)
Mars orbit period around sun (year)
Mars rotation period (day)
About 24 hrs.
Very similar to Earth
What causes seasons on Mars?
Tilt AND distance from sun
Size of Mars
About half the radius of earth
What is Mars atmosphere made of? Give percents
95% Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Pressure of Mars atmosphere
Only 1% of Earth's pressure. Equivalent to being at altitude of 18 miles on Earth.
Temperatures on Mars (Highest Day, Lowest Night, Average)
Hottest day ever = 51 F
Coldest night ever = -124 F
Average = -51 F
Winds on Mars
Range from 11-19 mph. Cause planet-wide dust storms
Clouds on Earth made of?
Name of moons on Mars
Size of Mars moons
a few miles
Tidal Locking (mars moons)
Mars moons rotate and orbit at the same speed in relation to distance from mars, meaning the same side of the moon always faces mars.
Meaning and orbit period of Phobos
7 hr orbit, close to mars
Meaning and orbit period of Deimos
30 hr orbit, far from mars
Small metal core
What is the Tharsis Bulge? Size? Height?
Large flat plateau on mars
Home to largest volcanos in solar system
Size of North America
6 miles high
Olympus mons? Location?
Largest volcano in Solar System.
Olympus Mons height and diameter
15 miles high
30 miles in diameter
Olympus mons made of? because?
Constant lava flow
"Grand Canyon of Mars"
Valles Marineris length, depth, width
3000 miles long (1/4 planet)
3 miles deep
60 miles wide at some points
Mars Polar Caps Made of?
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) not H20
Many diformities and craters are formed on Mars surface as a result of?
Mars Southern Hemisphere consists of?
Mars Norther Hemisphere consists of?
Why can't H20 be liquid on Mars?
Temp. and pressure are too low
What would happen to an ice cube that's heated up on mars?
It would turn into gas instead of liquid
2 places on Mars where you can find H20 ice?
Permafrost (permanently frozen ground)
Deep inside a polar cap
Why was mars able to have water a long time ago? How long did this last?
Mars used to have a thicker atmosphere, resulting in higher temperatures. This resulted in flowing water and ocean formation.
This lasted about 1 billion yearse
Evidence of Ancient Water on Mars (8)
Mars meteorites hit earth, composed of water saturated clay and carbonates.
River meandering and tributaries
Discovery of Hemetite by Rover
Layered sedimentary rocks with flow patterning
Salt deposits laid down by evaporating water
What happened to Mars' Atmosphere? 5 steps
1.) Atmosphere was leaking,
2.) Core cooled,
3.) no magnetic field,
4.) nothing pulling atmosphere in and keeping together,
5.) meteor blew off atmosphere, and made craters
2 features of moons surface
1.) Old, heavily cratered highlands
2.) Younger, dark lowlands (Maria)
Moons lowland (Maria) composition
Composed of basalt (cooled lava).
Interior layers of Moon? Made of?
Crust and Mantle made of all rock
Density of moon? Tells us?
3.3 g/cm cubed (not dense)
No large iron core
What does the density and layers of moon tell us?
Moon is formed from outer layers of the young earth, after it was hit by Mars sized object.
% of moons surface taken up by Maria
What does the crater count tell us?
How old a planet/moon is.
Moon's Highlands: Color, condition, height compared to Maria
5 km higher than Maria on average
Composition of Maria
Basalts rich in iron and magnesium. No water
Cause for composition of Maria
Large asteroid impacts cause deep magma to leak
Giant Impact Theory. 2 steps
1. Early earth collided with object size of Mars.
2. Object Vaporized and part of earths mantle was stripped, forming the moon.
Where do we get most of our knowledge about the moon?
From about 382 kg of rocks brought back after 9 space missions (6 US, 3 Soviet)
Radioactive Isotope dating of moon rocks confirm:
Earth and moon formed at same time
3 Types of moon rock
Most of moon rock samples collected. Made of different rocks fused together by meteor impacts. It's like concrete.
Layer of dust and fragmented rock on moon.
Caused by meteor impacts.
Moons atmosphere. Why?
Gravity too low to hold gas particles
Lunar Day length? Temp.
Ice on moon? mission?
LCROSS mission proved that there is ice on the poles.
Hasnt been proven to be water, but it is possible
The Jovian Planets
King of the Planets
Jupiter: Mass, radius, period of rotation, number of moons
Jovian Planets paired by similarity
Jupiter and Saturn
Uranus and Neptune
Which planet would float in water?
Neptunes orbit around sun
Extremely long. Takes 165 years.
98 degrees. Very large
Which is larger and more massive terrestrial or jovian?
Density of Jovian planets? Tells us?
Tells us they are made of ice, liquid, and gas
Jovian planetary orbits close together or widely spread?
Jovian rotations compared to terrestrial?
Rings on Jovian planets.
Each has a ring system
Jovian planets have at least how many moons?
Why is Jupiter the "King of the Planets"? (4 reasons)
Number 1 in: Radius, mass, rotation speed, and number of moons.
The name given to Jupiter's four largest moons, Io, Europa, Callisto & Ganymede. They were discovered independently by Galileo Galilei
Significance of Io? What planet?
Has active volcanoes. jupiter
Significance of Europa? what planet?
Significance of Ganymede?
Largest of Jupiter's moons
Great Red Spot
Continuous giant, high-pressure storm in Jupiter's atmosphere.
Number of Saturn's rings?
large gap between the two largest rings of Saturn caused by the gravitational pull of the moon, Mimas
What makes up Saturns rings?
Icy particles the size of snowballs moving together
Saturns moons that act as shepherds keeping the rings together from their gravitational pull
Planet with the lowest density?
Which planet has the only moon with an atmosphere? what's the moon called?
Which planet has no internal heating?
Uranus atmosphere composition
Mostly Hydrogen and Helium. The rest methane
Tilt of Uranus? This causes?
Causes weird seasons/ night and day.
42 years of sunlight/darkness
How were Uranus' rings discovered? what is it?
During a stellar occultation, which is when an object passes in front of a star.
What color is Uranus and Neptune? Why?
Blue because the methane absorbs the long wavelengths and reflects short (blue) wavelengths
Which planet has large internal heating? Surface temp?
Which planet has white, methane ice clouds?
Neptunes moon? type of moon
% Composition of Jovian Planets
About 80% Hydrogen
About 20% Helium
Trace amounts of Methane and Ammonia
2 elements that make up basically EVERYTHING (stars, clouds, galaxies)
Spacecrafts doing Fly-By's of Jupiter and Saturn
Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2
Spacecrafts orbiting Jupiter and Saturn
Landed on Titan
Dropped an atmospheric probe
Spacecraft reaching Uranus and Neptune
Most of our studies of Uranus and Neptune have been from using? What has been studied?
Hubble Space Telescope
Long term weather patterns and infrared image studies of atmosphere, rings, moons.
Interior: pressure, composition of Jupiter Saturn
Enough pressure to liquify gases.
Made mostly of Hydrogen in different forms, and some Helium
Jupiter and Saturn 2 layers made of liquid hydrogen: outern layer form? inner layer form?
Liquid Hydrogen in the form of normal on the outer layer and metallic on the inner.
Uranus and Neptune Interiors made of? mantle? core size and comp.?
Mantle: Thick and slushy ice made of water, ammonia
Core: rocky core size of earth
Uranus and Neptune: most of mass consists of
Uranus and Neptune: less mass = less?
Jovian Energy Imbalance? Leads to?
Jovian planets radiate more energy then they recieve from the sun. Leads to large amounts of internal heating because extra energy is used to make heat through contraction in core.
Jupiter and Saturn atmosphere contains?
Hydrogen, ammonia clouds, water ice clouds
Divided into dark bands and bright zones.
Uranus and Neptune: Atmosphere composition
Neptunes cloud temp compared to Uranus
Neptune has the same temp, while being 10 AU's from the sun