Art 266 Islam Terms Gardners
|Hijra|| Emigration of flight of Muhammad in 622 from Mecca to Medina.|
(Muslim calendar is oriented to this year. Their year is also shorter)
|Kaaba|| Literally "cube,"|
It is a former polytheistic temple in Mecca that Muslims circumambulate during the Haj
|Haj||The once-in-a-lifetime holy pilgrimage to Mecca undertaken by faithful Muslims|
|Holy Qur'an or Koran||The Sacred book of Muslims, meaning "recitations"|
|Surah||Chapters of the Qur'an, 114 in all, further subdivided by verse.|
|The 5 Pillars of Islam|| Professing faith in Allah, the one god.|
Worshipping Allah 5 times daily, facing the direction of Mecca
Almsgiving to the poor
Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan
If possible, making a pilgrimage to Mecca one in one's lifetime (Haj)
|Sunnah|| Meaning "path" or "surface road"|
A collection of holy guidance for living daily life, its customs and ethical practices for Muslims
|Imam|| "The holy one who stands or walks in front"|
Applied to the man who guides or leads prayers in a mosque
|Caliph||Chief civil and religious Muslim leader and proper successor to Muhammad, in Arabic, "deputy of God"|
|Caliphate||The dominion of a caliph|
|Aniconic||Imagery that does not depict figural images|
Wedge-shaped stones that form a round or pointed arch
|Masjid||"Place of prostration" in Arabic, another word for mosque|
|Mosque||Muslim place of worship|
|Minaret||Tower on a mosque from which a muezzin calls Muslim faithful to prayer 5 times daily|
|Muezzin||A man who calls the Muslim faithful to prayer 5 times daily from a minaret|
|Qibla||The direction of Mecca; one wall of a mosque will be the quibla wall and the architecture and furnishing will be oriented to it and worshippers will face it while at prayer.|
A stepped pulpit installed in front of the qibla wall; its purpose is unclear.
A narrow semicircular niche usually set in the qibla wall; its purpose is unclear.
Arabic for "closed off space"
It is an enclosure near the qibla wall designed to be occupied by the local ruler and provide for their safety while emphasizing their elevated social status.
|Hypostyle hall|| |
A forest of columns that hold up a roof, creating an interior space.
A vaulted hall walled on only 3 sides with one side completely open.
|Arabesque||A motif of surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patters of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils or plain lines.|
|Engaged column||A column that is sunken into a wall; it is not a true load bearing column.|
A straight or arched structure across an interior angle of a square tower to carry a dome.
|Fenestration||The program of windows in a building|
An early form of Arabic calligraphic script, named for its city of origin, Kufa.
|Alameda|| Spanish for "mall" |
A promenade shaded by trees
Stalactite-like stucco forms that drape down from a dome.
|Madrasa|| Arabic for "Place of study"|
It denotes a school for the study of Islamic law.
A late cursive style of calligraphic script.