By the 1820s, what had happened?
Nationalism was replaced by Sectionalism
What were 2 reasons why people were so drawn to Jackson?
1. Hero of the Battle of New Orleans
2. Rags to riches- first "log cabin" president
What were the three issues that Jackson believed in?
1. Power of the people
2. Power of the presidency
3. Power of the federal government over the states (a surprise!)
How did political change happen in America?
Property and religious requirements to vote were eliminated in most states (began in western states)
What is suffrage?
the right to vote
What is a Caucus? Is it democratic?
a small group which chooses people to run for office. This is not very democratic
Who was the first political convention for and when did it happen?
For Democrats- in 1832
Who couldn't vote?
Blacks, women, and Native-Americans
Spoils System "To the victor belongs the spoils."
Jackson replaced government employees with his supports. This gave more people the opportunity to serve in government.
Jackson's Use of Presidential Power
Vetoed 12 bills during his two terms which was more than all the 6 presidents before him combined (9 total)
1828- Congress passes very high tariff on goods from Europe
Who hated the tariff of 1828 and who loved it?
North loves the high tariff
South hated it- called it the "Tariff of Abominations"
John C. Calhoun (vice-president at the time) writes "Exposition and Protest" (big secret who wrote it)
Exposition and Protest
Says that a state has the right to declare a law made by Congress unconstitutional and null and void (the tariff!!!)
Daniel Webster(Massachusetts) vs. Robert Hayne(South Carolina)
Who defended what in the Webster-Hayne debate?
Hayne defended the right of states to declare laws unconstitutional-Webster defended the Constitution and the Union arguing that nullification would cause an end to the Union
What was Webster's famous quote?
"Liberty and Union, Now and Forever, One and inseparable!"
Jefferson Day Dinner
April 30, 1830
What did Andrew Jackson say in his toast at the Jefferson Day Dinner?
"Our federal union; it must be preserved!"
How did Calhoun respond?
By saying, "The union next to our liberty, most dear?"
What happened to Calhoun?
Won election to the Senate from South Carolina then resigned.
Who became vice-president after John C. Calhoun?
Martin Van Buren
What happened in 1832?
Congress passed a new tariff which was lower, but still not low enough for south
What was the Nullification Act
This was when the South Carolina legislature meets and declares Tariff of 1832 unconstitutional (threatens to secede from union)
Who got both sides together?
Who persuaded Congress to pass the Force Bill?
What was the Force Bill?
President could use armed forces to uphold laws made by Congress. (South Carolina breaks down)