AP United States History Unit 5

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Jacksonian era, reform movements, slavery

Seneca Falls Convention

First women's right's convention in US - led by Elizabeth Stantonand and Lucretia Mott

Dorothea Dix

Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums

John C Calhoun

South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification

Oregon Territory

Territory in the upper western corner of the US - claimed by both Britain and US

Stephen Douglas

Political who debated Lincoln prior to 1860 election - advocated annexation of Mexico and strong supporter for Compromise of 1850

Wilmont Proviso

Bill that banned slavery from lands acquired from Mexican War

John Deere

Founded Deere & Co. - largest construction and agricultural manufacturers in the world

Maine Laws

Passed in 1851 - first big step in the Temperance Movement - outlawed sale of alcohol except for medical purposes

Trail of Tears

Forced migration of Indians to the Indian Territory in 1831 - decried by Jackson

Emancipation Proclamation

Executive order that ended slavery in the states in rebellion (confederate states)

Hinton Helper

Critic of Slavery in the South - published The Impending Crisis of the South - said slavery hurt the economic growth of non-slave holders and the growth of the Southern region

The Impending Crisis of the South

Book dedicated to the Non-slave holders of the South - by Hinton Helper

Dred Scott v Sanford

Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens

Bank War

Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the United States

Mexican Cession

and that Mexico ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo in 1848. This territory included California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. The addition of so much land to the United States exacerbated conflict over the expansion of slavery because some Northerners feared that the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico would deter free laborers from settling there

Cyrus McCormick

Invented mechanical reaper

Treaty of Huadalupe-Hidalgo

Ended Mexican War - US received Texas (with Rio Grande border) and other states - US paid Mexico $15 million dollars

John Slidell

Sent by Polk to Mexico to negotiate Texas independence and purchase of California and New Mexico - was ignored by Mexican Government

Compromise of 1850

Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC

Nullification

States have right to nullify any federal law - John C Calhoun was a big advocate

William Lloyd Garrison

White Abolitionist - Early 1800s - published The Liberator

The Liberator

Abolitionist Newspaper first published by William Lloyd Garrison

Popular Sovereignty

New states could vote on slavery

Gadsden Purchase

The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.

American Anti-Slavery Society

Abolitionist Society founded by William Lloyd Garrison

Irish Immigration

Large number of Irish migrated to the US because of the potato famine

Trent Affair

Union soldiers boarded British ship The Trent and removed Mason and Slidell - were interned in Boston and released by Lincoln

Bleeding Kansas

Missouri border ruffians crossed into the Kansas to vote against slavery (led by John Brown) - severely divided the fledgling state

Horace Mann

Secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education - created public school system in MASS - became model for nation

Commonwealth v Hunt

Supreme Court decision that legalized labor unions

Trancendentalism

New types of literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England - middle 1800s - Ralph Waldo Emmerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margret Fuller

Webster-Ashbutron Treaty

Settled border dispute between Maine and New Brunswick - very popular treaty in US because they got more than half of the territory

Lincoln-Douglass Debates

Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglass before election of 1860 - mostly over issues of slavery

Freeport Doctrine

Stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property

James K. Polk

Polk was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a "dark horse" candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.

Apologist's view of Slavery

Thought there was nothing wrong with it - cited bible

Force Act

Passed after civil war - protected voting rights of blacks

Homestead Act

1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years

Lucretia Mott

Early 1800s - Feminist - helped organize Seneca Falls

Independent Treasury Plan

Idea that federal government should have its own treasury; never put into practice.

Nashville Convention

Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.

Morrill Land Grant Act

Government gave land for public colleges

Compact Theory

claiming that the formation of the nation was through a compact by all of the states individually and that the national government is consequently a creation of the states

Free Soilers

People who opposed expansion of slavery into western territories

Second Great Awakening

A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.

Worcester v Georgia

Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it

Charles River Bridge Case

case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract

Cult of Domesticity

Belief in Middle and Upper Classes in US and Britain - women embodied perfect virtues in all senses

Alexis DeTocqueville

French philosopher - wrote Democracy in America

Demoracy in America

book by Aleix DeTocqueville - explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies

William Seward

US senator who negotiated purchase of Alaska

Fugitive Slave Law

Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.

Removal of Deposits

Jackson removed all of the federal money from Bank of the US - killed bank

Harriet Beecher Stowe

She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystalize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.

Brigham Young

Leader of Mormons

Kansas-Nebraska Act

created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories

Specie Circular

Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in specie

Crittenden Compromise

1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans

Lecompton Constitution

pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union - rejected

Perpetual Union

belief that the union should never be split up - against succession

Know Nothing

1850s - Nativist movement - against Irish Immigrants

Mormons

Religious group founded by Joseph Smith in NYC - forced to move to Illinois then to Utah

Prigg v Pennsylvania

Supreme Court case that decided federal law superseded state law

Manifest Destiny

Belief that god wanted the US to extend the to West Coast

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama

Gag Rule

1835-1844 - stopped any anti-slavery discussion in Congress

Tariff of Abominations

1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.

Ostend Manifesto

Attempt to buy Cuba from Spain for $20 million - not carried out

Antebellum

phrase meaning before the civil war

Battle of Antietam

1862 - first civil war battle to occur on Northern soil

Uncle Tom's Cabin

abolitionist book by Harriet Beecher Stowe

Neal Dow

Mayor of Portland, ME - founder of Maine Temperance Union - secured passage of Maine Law

Sumner-brooks Affair

1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.

Underground Railroad

Chain of safe houses to help slaves run away to Canada

National Banking Act

1863 - Established system of national charters for banks

Nature of the Union

topic on which the Lincoln-Douglass Debates centered on

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