A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
an economic system based on money rather than barter
economic system in which people invest in trade or goods to make profits
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
an outstanding achievement
the practice by which secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office
forbids priests from giving the sacraments of the Church to a particular group of people
a formal religious act conferring a specific grace on those who receive it
an opinion different from accepted belief; the denial of an idea that is generally held sacred
a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church (1232-1820) created to discover and suppress heresy
an object considered holy because it belonged to, or was touched by, a saint or other holy person
the study of religion
the system of philosophy dominant in medieval Europe
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
prejudice against Jews
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
Historians' term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits.
an annual direct tax, usually on land or property