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The Brain & Autonomic Nervous System/Sense Organs

The following are all major components of the brainstem except

the pons.

The gray matter of the cerebrum forms a surface layer called____and deeper masses called_____surrounded by white matter.

cortex: nuclei

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves these purpose except....

to provide oxygen and nutrients to the nervous tissue.

CSF is secreted by the choroid plexus in the_____ventricles and reabsorbed by arachnoid villi in the_____.

lateral, third and fourth; superior sagittal sinus

A patient is experiencing a high fever, stiff neck, drowsiness and intense ha's. A spinal tap showed bacteria and WBC in the CSF. This individual most likely has...

meningitis.

The cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory centers are found in...

the medulla oblongata

The_____function(s) in visual attention, such as to look and follow the flight of a butterfly.

Superior colliculi

Degeneration of neurons in this structure, which inhibits unwanted body movements, leads to the muscle tremors of Parkinson's disease.

Substantia nigra

The_____is the largest part of the hindbrain.

cerebellum

Loss of equilibrium and motor coordination would most likely be related to a lesion in the...

cerebellum.

Nearly all the somatosensory input to the cerebrum passes by way of synapses in...

the thalamus.

Sex drive, body temperature, and food and water intake are regulated by

the hypothalamus.

Planning, motivation and social judgment are functions of the brain associated with

the frontal lobe.

The occipital lobe is

the principal visual center of the brain.

The great majority of______tracts pass through the corpus callosum.

commissural

The hippocampus and amygdala are structures found in...

the limbic system.

During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep...

the muscles are paralyzed, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates increase.

The________association area is responsible for perceiving and attending to stimuli, and the____association area is responsible for identifying them.

parietal; temporal

Short term memory is associated with the____, whereas the long-term memory is associated with the....

hippocampus; cerebral cortex

Destructon of the amygdala would mostly affect

expression of emotional feelings.

Which of the body region is controlled by the largest area of the motor cortex?

The fingers.

Nonfluent aphasia, due to a lesion in the____,results in slow speech, difficulty in choosing words, or use of words that only approximate the correct word.

Broca area.

After a stroke a patient complains about lack of sensitivity in her rt hand. The stroke most likely affected the.....

postcentral gyrus in the left parietal lobe.

The_____is not a motor cranial nerve.

vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

This is the largest of the cranial nerves and the most important sensory nerve of the face.

The trigeminal nerve (V)

This nerve innervates most of the viscera in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.

The vagus nerve (X).

The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the....

skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis.

Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except....

maintaining tonicity of the muscles of the neck.

Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?

sensory receptor-> afferent nerve fiber-> interneuron-> efferent nerve fiber-> gland

Parasympathetic tone

holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate.

The neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is (are)

acetylcholine (ACh).

The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is____, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is____.

excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory

In response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called____ in the walls of arteries carrying blood to the head will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to_____its beats per minute.

baroreceptors; decrease

The motor pathway of the autonomic nervous usually involves___ neurons.

two

Preganglionic fibers run from...

gray matter autonomic ganglia.

Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are____and secrete______.

myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)

Most fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system travel in...

the vagus nerve.

Sympathetic fibes arise only from the_____region(s) of the spinal cord.

thoracic and lumbar

The adrenal medulla secretes mostly

epinephrine (adrenaline).

Damage to the_____may affect near vision accomidation.

oculomotor nerve (CN III)

White rami carry_____neurons, while gray rami carry_____neurons

myelinated preganglionic ; unmyelinated postganglionic

If a cell has a1 adrenergic receptors, it is sensitive to....

adrenaline.

Propranolol, a beta-blocker, is typically used to

decrease heart rate.

Muscarinic receptors bind

acetylcholine.

Sympathetic effects tend to last_____than parasympathetic effects. One reason is that______.

longer; acetylcholine can diffuse into the bloodstream without being broken down

This enzyme breaks down norepinephrine (NE).

monoamine oxidase (MAO)

A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a______neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter______.

preganglionic; acetylcholine (ACh)

Drugs that MAO inhibitors would most likely

decrease the amount of NE destroyed and may be used as an antidepressant.

A possible explanation for the effect of caffeine is that it blocks the receptor for a neuromodulator in the brain called____, which inhibits ACh release by cholinergic neurons.

adenosine.

The_____is an especially important center of autonomic center of autonomic control.

hypothalamus

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