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Long Bones

Has a shaft known as the Diaphysis, has distinct ends on the bones called epiphysis, contains a cavity that is filled with marrow. The marrow is either red or yellow. Red is blood, yellow is fat. The outer surface of this bone is called the periosteum, it contains vessels and nerves on the outside layer.

Compact Bone

A classification of bone that has a solid matrix, and no spaces between the cells. It consists of cells called Osteocytes, and it is connected by canaliculi. This classification also receives nutrients from vessels.

Canaliculi

In Compact Bone thats located in small pockets of Lacunae. These are small structures between Osteocytes that are located between the matrix sheet Lamellas.

Cancellous Bone

Classification of Bone that consists of interconnecting networks of bone called trabeculae. The spaces between the bone are filled with marrow. Typically there are no vessels in it's trabeculae and NO Haversion Canals. The marrow diffuses nutrients into this type of bone.

Ossification

The term for the formation of bone by the osteoblasts. This occurs in two processes, Intramembranous and Endochondral.

Intramembranous Ossification

Type of Ossification that forms bone within connective tissue membranes.

Endochondral Ossification

Formation of bone from cartilage.

Appositional Growth

This is a specific type of bone growth which takes the pre-existing bone to make a new bone. The bone matrix is formed between surface of the bone and outside layer (periosteum) which increases the diameter of long bones.

Endochondral Growth

Antother specific type of Bone growth which bone growth is from cartilage at epiphysis plate. This evenentually gets replaced, the cartilage cells form rows parallel with the Long Axis of the Bone. This increases the length of the bone.

Bone repair/remodeling

Old bone cells are removed by osteoclasts. This occurs in all bone, responsible for growth, change in shape, adjustment to stress, repair, and ion adjustment.

Axial skeleton

Bony and cartilaginous parts that supported and protect the organs of head, neck and trunk.

Appendicular Skeleton

Bones of upper and lower limbs and also the bones that anchor the limbs to the Axial Skeleton.

Joint

also called (articulations)..............3 types of these, (Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial). They are categorized by structure.

Fibrous joint

1 of the 3 Joint categories Between bones of close contact, contains dense tissues of collagen.

Synarthrotic

Immovable joints

Amphiarthrotic

Semi-movable joints

Diarthrotic

Movable joints

Syndesmosis

type of Fibrous Joint that allows slight movement, binds bones with short bundle of connective tissue.

Suture

Type of fibrous joint that is between flat bones of skull. These are Immovable.

Gomphosis

Type of Fibrous joint that meets a cone shaped bone into a bony socket. these are immovable.

Cartilaginous Joint

1 of 3 categories of joints that is connected by hyaline on fibrocartilage.

synchondrosis

type of cartilaginous joint where bones meet and are help by hyaline cartilage.........after they meet they become synarthrotic(immovable).

Symphysis

type of cartilaginous joint that is at the end of bones (or articulating surface) that is made of thin hyaline cartilage attached to fibrocartilage. These are very tough joints.

Synovial Joints

1 of 3 types of joints that allow free movement and a presence of synovial fluid. Also have a membrane and sometimes a capsule. These can be sperated partially by MENISE(discs between articulating surfaces. Some of there fluid-filled sacs of Synovial fluid are called Bursae,-> (this is located between the skin and bony prominences.)

Bursae

Fluid filled sacs in Synovial joints that are located between the skin and bony prominences.

Coracohumeral Ligament

Ligament in the shoulder composed of a broad band of connective tissue. It strengthens the joint capsule. Connects coracoid process and the scapula to the humerous in arm.

Glenohumeral Ligament

Shoulder ligament that have three bands of fibers that appear as thickenings in the ventral wall of the joint capsule. extend from glenoid cavity to the anotomical neck of the humerous.

Transverse humeral Ligament

Shoulder ligament that consists of a narrow sheet of connective tissue fibers that runs between tubercles of the humerous. The ligament forms a canal through which the bicep passes.

ileo femural Ligament

Hip ligament that consists of y-shaped band of very strong fibers which connects the iliac spine of coxa to a bony line extended between the greater and lesser parts of the femur. It is the STRONGEST ligament in the human body.

Pubofemoral Ligament

hip ligament that extends between the pubis and iliofemural ligament. Its fibers blend in with fibers of joint capsule

Ischiofemoral Ligament

hip ligament that consists of strong band of fibers that comes from the ischium and blends with the fibers to the joint capsule.

Patellar Ligament

knee ligament that is a continuation of large muscle group in the thigh. It consists of a strong, flat band that extends from the margin of the patella to the tibial tuberoisty.

Oblique popliteal Ligament

Knee Ligament that connects the lateral condyle of the femur to the margin of the head of the tibia.

Arcuate popliteal Ligament

Knee ligament that is a braod, flat band of tissue that connects the medial condyle of the femur to the medial condyle of the tibia.

Ball and Socket joint

Type of Synovial joint that is a bone with a ball shaped head and articulates with a cup shaped socket of another. This allows movement in all planes and includes rotation. Examples are the shoulder and Hip.

Condyloid joint

Type of Synovial joint where a oval shape condyle of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another. Has a variety of movements in diff. planes but NO rotation. Example is the joints between metacarpals and phalanges.

Gliding joint

Type of Synovial joint where articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved. These tend to have a sliding or twisting movement. Example is the joints between various bones of wrist and ankle.

Hinge joint

Type of Synovial joint where a convex surface of one bone articulates with the concave surface of another bone. This allows movements of flexion and extension. Examples are the elbow and the joints of the phalanges.

Pivot Joint

Type of Synovial joint where a cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of a bone and ligament. The only movement it allows is rotation. An example is the joints between proximal ends of radius and the ulna.

Saddle joint

Type of Synovial joint where articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions; the surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another. Has a variety of movements but mainly in two planes. Examples are joints between carpal and metacarpal of the thumb.

bone break

This happens and teh result is that vessels are torn, clotting occurs, there is a formation of colliginous cells. This helps reform the bone and make a patch. The healing of this could take time.

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