Exam II: Architectural History

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Greece, Romans, Etruscans

She Wolf

An etruscan sculpture of a wolf, adopted by the Romans as the Capitaline Wolf

Mausoleum

A structure for internment or burial, built underground by the Etruscans

Sarcophagus

a sealed burial container for the human body

Bones box

a smaller container meant only for the disassembled bones

Full Figure

a container meant for an entire intact human form

Town Planning

Method of laying out towns at the crossing of two roads with the public buildings at the center of a grid pattern. Taught by the Etruscans to the Romans

Drainage System

Sewers built below ground to provide drainage, taught by Etruscans to Romans

Keystone

a heavy wedge shaped stone at the top of a compression arch, holds the other stones in place

Voussoir

a wedged stone used in the sides of a compression arch to form its curve

Barrel Vault

a tall arched ceiling running in one direction, can be described as a series of compression arches

Groin Vault

the intersection of two barrel vaults

Dome

a compression arch spun in a circle to form an enclosed round structure

Exedra

a semi circular space covered by a partial dome set into a buildings facade

Basilica

a large roofed hall used by the early Romans as a public building, its plan would become the basis for most Christian Churches

Nave

Central aisle of a basilica or church

Side Aisle

aisles running parallel to, but separated from the nave by a colonnade

Clerestory

Windows high up in a structure

Transept

an area in a basilica or church set crosswise to the nave

Apse

a recessed area separated from the nave by the transept, often had a vaulted or semi-dome ceiling. Was used as a sanctuary in later churches

Sanctuary

Sacred place in a temple, in Roman and Christian temples it was usually located in the apse.

Axial Plan

building plan set about a single axis, causing the building to be experienced in successive parts

Atrium

a large open space within a building

Coffered ceiling

practice of creating sunken panels into a surface often repeated to cover a ceiling

Oculus

Latin for "eye" refers to a round opening or window in a building, specifically the whole at the top of the Pantheon

Forum

An open public space at the center of a Roman Town

Villa

An upper class country house for Roman Citizens

Aqueduct

Roman engineering structures that carried water from its source in mountains to the towns using hydrostatic pressure

Ampitheater

Central Areas for performance surrounded by ascending seating. Built into hillsides by the Greeks, built up mulitple stories by the Romans

Impluvium

An atrium in a house with a sloped roof meant for catching and storing rain water

Peristyle

An open colonnaded porch surrounding a roofless court that often contained an interior garden

Concrete

a building material with great compressive strength that can be shaped into almost any form. Made up primarily of cement, gravel, sand and water

Opus Cementum

Roman concrete made up of Lime, Volcanic ash, aggregate (usually rubble) and water

Polytheistic

Believing in more than one God

Monotheistic

Belief that there exists only one God

Verism

Idea of truth in form that applied to Roman art and sculpture

Pontiff

Latin for "bridge builder" became a title for Roman priests and later the title of the Pope of the Christian Church

Vesuvius

Volcano that erupted in 79 A.D. and covered Pompeii in ash

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