famous for demanding that the mentally ill be treated with kindness, personally unlocking the chains of inmates in France.
Approaches to treatment
psychotherapy and medical
Types of psychotherapists
Psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors
therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional
treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively
psychotherapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight (a clearer understanding) with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
psychotherapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly
therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms
an insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts.
the actual content of one's dream.
the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams
Freudian technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations
occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent.
in psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist
when therapist acts on patient's positive feelings.
a form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships.
action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior
Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis
the use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior.
behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears.
learning through the observation and imitation of others
technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model
the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges
a formal, written agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student) in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated.
the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior
an extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior, usually by being placed in a quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities
action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically.
teaches clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs.
teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment; to be aware of his/her thoughts, feelings, and sensations; and to detect symptoms before they become a problem.
assumes all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist.
**congruence, empathy, and unconditional positive regard.
goal of helping the client become aware of his/her thoughts, behaviors, experiences, and feelings and to "own" or take responsibility for them.
**empty chair technique (role playing).
form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing.
--Try to help clients deal with things in their past that they have denied and will use body language and other nonverbal cues to understand what clients are really saying.
a nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens.
Unconditional positive regard
Four elements of person-centered therapy
therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements.
Unconditional positive regard
referring to the warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in person-centered therapy.
the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client.
the genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client.
Family counseling (family therapy)
a form of group therapy in which family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family.
Self-help groups (support groups)
a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support.
therapies that directly affect the biological functioning of the body and brain.
the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders.
drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior.
drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers.
used to treat bipolar disorder and include lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs
drugs used to treat depression and anxiety
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
treatment that involves inducing a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain.
the surgical destruction of specific brain areas.
therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques.
the relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding.
2. cultural values
3. social class
4. nonverbal communication.
Four barriers to effective psychotherapy that exist when the backgrounds of client and therapist differ are....
psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet. Also called online, Internet, or Web therapy or counseling.
--Offers the advantages of anonymity and therapy for people who cannot otherwise get to a therapist.
the one safe antidepressant for children and adolescents, has been found to be more effective when combined with psychotherapy