Religions of China (taoism and confucianism)

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What does practice the three doctrines refer?

the teachings of confucianism and taoism and buddism-are complementary or blending, belong/fit together

What four backround elements of chinese culture influence taoism and confucianism?

1. patterns in nature-had to learn to live in the land and work with nature
2. divination-methods for predicting the future, would read lines in bones or the iching or hexagrams
3. Tien-heaven, or personal god/deity, place-residence, power-impersonal force
a) moral force-source of morality, good and bad behavior
b) controls historical events
4. Yin and Yang-theory of philosophy of how everything works

What was the political context within which both taoism and confucianism arose and to which their spiritualities were addressed?

The warring state-479-221bce. time of crazyness and war.
they needed to figure out how to get things back in order/balanced

Who is the founder of taoism and what are the values in his life and writings?

Lao Tzu-born old soal, very wise, mother conceived him when gazing at shooting star, was a librarian for Zhou dynasty, says people are the problem and civilization is evil, get as far away as people as possible, have to live like/closer to nature

What are 3 ways in which we can understand/define the Tao?

1. The Tao of Ultimate Reality- transcendent, tao is the order/structure/source of all things, not creator, not personal, always chaning, constantly in motion, known by intuition.
2. The Tao of Nature/Physical Universe- within this world of limits, individual/private life, personnal virtues-how you relate to nature, yin orientation, emphases on both philosophical and religous taoism.
3. The Tao of Human Life/Relationship (society)-
immanent-within this world of limits, yang orientation, social/public life, social virtues, emphasis of confucianism

For what reasons is the Tao of ultimate reality considered ineffable?

1. is constantly moving, changing all the time, but words are static-fixed
2. The Tao is everywhere and it includes the knower-the person who is trying to describe it includes everything
3. cannot be known intellectually, can only be intuitivly.

What are some common virtues of philosophical Taosim?

-closeness to nature
-solitude-living alone
-quiet-away from noise of other people
-simplicity-live a life where you rid yourself of stuff that isnt essential
-gentleness-pasifist, do everything in your power to avoid conflict, a way to confront your aggression, fight with gentleness, grace, passive
-relativity-yin and yang
-humor-something unexpected
-dreaming-what exists naturally, all apart of reality

Define and illustrate the principal of Wei wu Wei

-the action of no action, pure effectiveness through quietness, the action of no wasted action, efforlessness, should refrain from any unnatural action-learn to live spontaniosly
ex-beekeeper story, junk-boat that leaves no wake, smooth and efficiant

What were the three general attitudes toward Te (or power) in various Taoist schools?

1. Efficient power-philosophers living a simple life, managing the te. Goal-to live a simple spiritual life
2. Augmented/Vitalizing Power-practioners desiring health, increasint the te. Goal-to lengthen the life span or attain immorality
3. Vicarious Power- the masses wanting ritual to transmit the te, someone doing soemthing on the behalf of someone else. Goal-to cultivate rich ritual for times of crisis.

What is the of vitalizing school? methods?

Goal-to lengthen the life span or attain immortality by increasing chi and balancing chi and ching in the body
methods- matter-solid:potions/diet-Liquid-saliva, semen, and sex-Gas-air and breathing
Movement-tai chi, chi gong
meditation-visualizing, reciting, ritualizing

Who is the founder of confucianism and what significant life events shaped his spirituality?

founder-kongfuzi-latin=confucious, life over lapped lao tzu, born into royal family, born in a time of political danger and fragmentation, almost got killed-this strongly influenced his spirituality, was a teacher holding governmental positions-wandering teacher, goal was to be trusted advisor/right hand man of a prince to restore chinese empire

What were the 2 problems of his age confucious addressed?

1.Theoretical-mandate of heaven-belief that tien would put someone in power, source of morality, historical events. Problem-either not ture or tien has no one left with good moral character-wants to restore moral characters
2. Practical-how we restore social and order and harmony-disagreed with lao tzu, he believed that we are social creatures not natural, need to go back to western Zhou kings, going to start restoring moral character-starting with noble families so that people would look up to them-live lives with other people-social solution

What were confucious 2 ideals and why?

1. To create an ideal individual- a noble person-need to have right moral character (the Junzi)
2. To create and ideal (harmonious) society- support of a harmonious society.

In what 2 ways did confucious differ from philosophical taoists beliefs?

1. believes that educations is necessary/important
2. relationship is necessary-can only become everything your supposed to be by living with humans and other people.

What are the 5 virtues and what do they mean?

1. Ren-intend good-empathy-experiencing it with them-inside out can identify with them, ideal relationship between two people/to be human-merciful and kind
2. Li-appropriateness/propriety-appropriate conduct in every situation, good manners, rituals the king would engage in, the attitude the king had when doing the ritual.
3. Shu-reciprocity-do not do to others what you would not want done to you-golden rule
4. Xiao-family devotion, love your family first before all other relationships.
5. Wen- culture or cultivation in the arts, highly cultured people ex.-coligraphy-beautiful writings.

What are the 5 great relationships?

Priority-family before non family, male before female, age-older to younger
1. father-son
2. elder brother-younger brother
3. husband-wife
4. elder friend-younger friend
5. ruler-subject

What were the taoist and confucian views of human nature?

Taoist-natural human goodness/optimistic
Mencius-innate goodness, needing help to reach potential
Confucious-optimistic, humans need refinement from education, the respond to kindness and good example
Xunzi-human nature not positiveor negative, neutral-not intentional, educations is radical transformation-teach us to be human-educations needs to be deeper
Muzi (mohist school)-wants to teach everyone how to love eachother
Legalist-humans fundamentally selfish and lazy, need stern laws and punishment.

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