The lowest layer of hte Earth's atmosphere where all weather occurs from the Earth's surface (0-8 miles up)
The direct transfer of energy from the sun. The sun hitting your face.
The transfer of energy from one substance to another that is touching. Hot sand on your feet.
The transfer of energy by the movement of water or air. A heater heating the air in a room.
This layer extends from the top of the troposhere and contains the ozone layer that protects living things from ultraviolet radiation. (8-30 miles up)
When the stratopshere prevents most of the heat from escaping into space. Ex. Glass windows of a greenhouse trapping in heat. Added carbon dioxide gases from burning fossil fuels cause this.
The average year to year conditions of temperature, precipitation, and weather in an area.
What affects temperature and precipitation?
Latitude, altitude, mountain ranges, proximity to oceans or large bodies of water and the tilt of the Earth on its axis causing the seasons and direct or indirect heating.
Air masses form over tropical oceans and bodies of water and are warm and humid.
Air massses form over cold northern oceans and are cold and humid.
Air masses form over land in Mexico and are dry and warm.
Air masses form over land in Canada and are dry and cold.
A cold air mass pushes into and moves a warm air mass usually causing wind and heavy downpours followed by cooler temps. and less humidity. (Cumulonimbus clouds)
A warm air mass pushes into and moves a cold air mass usually causing light rain followed by warmer temperatures and higher humidity. (Stratus clouds)
Points of the same pressure. Winds blow due to differences in air pressure. Close isobars cause high winds. Pressure is measured with a barometer Wind moves from high to low pressure.
Associated with warm rising air, clouds, wind, and precipitation. Called cyclones that spin in counterclockwise direction.
Associated with cool sinking air, sun, and clear weather. Called anti-cyclones that spin in a clockwise direction
Points of the same temperature. Temperature is measured with a thermometer in the shade.
Jet Stream or Westerlies
Upper level wind caused by the rotation of the Eaerth that cause North American air masses to move acros the US from west to east. Wind speed is measured with an anemometer and is placed in an open area.
Caused by unequal heating of the Earth's surface within a small area. The sun creates convection currents of warm air. Water holds heat longer than land. Large bodies of warm water warm up slowly and cool down slowly. Land heats up quickly, but cools quickly at night.
As air over land heats quickly during the day and rises, coller air from the water rushes in to take its place
As land cools quickly at night, warmer air over the water rises and cool heavy air over land takes its place
The amount of moisture in the air. 100% huidity means the air is saturated or full of water. Humidity is measured with a hygrometer. Percipitation is measured with a rain gauge and is placed in the open.
The temperature our body feels wehn we are exposed to wind. Wind causes our body to cool more quickly, making the ouside temperature feel colder.
The mixture of gases that surround the solid Earth. 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% carbon dioxide and other gases
All the water on the Earth in the lakes, streams, oceans, rivers, glaciers, and groundwater. 75% of the Earth's surface is covered by water.
Geosphere or lithosphere
Includes all the features of the Earth's surface including the continents, islands, and the ocean or sea floor.