Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom
in certain regions, peasants were required to work 3-4 days without pay per week for their local lord
feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions
siege of Vienna 1683
In the late seventeenth century, under vigorous reforming leadership, the Ottoman succeeded in marshaling its forces for one last mighty attack on the Habsburgs. Building on long support from Protestant nobles in Hungary and reinforced by an alliance with Louis XIV of France, the Turks marched on Austria. A huge Turkish army surrounded Vienna and laid siege to it in 1683. After holding out against great odds for two months, the city was relieved at the last minute by a mixed force of Habsburg, Saxon, Bavarian, and Polish troops, and the Ottomans were forced to retreat. Soon the retreat became a rout. As Russian and Venetian allies attacked on other fronts, the Habsburgs conquered almost all of Hungary and Transylvania by 1699. (570)
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
the house that ruled Prussia, they gradually won control over the Brandenburg through mariages, giving them control of German principalities in central and western Germany.
member of the Prussian aristocracy noted especially for militarism
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements.
Time of Troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
the Russian imperial line that ruled from 1613 to 1917
A renegade group of cossacks who rebelled against Peter the Great in 1698
Great Northern War
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
Window on the West
After the great Northern war, in the Treaty of Nystad, Russia made important gains in Latvia and Estonia in the Baltic Sea.
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden
Peter the Great in Russia built in St. Peterburg largely on influence of Versailles
1st Prussian ruler; unites Brandenburg and other states to form Prussia; runs state as if it were army; builds civil service based on military (Commissant governs both civil and military)
Charles XII of Sweden
(ruled 1697-1718). The King of Sweden, he assumed the throne at the age of 18. Upon assuming the throne, Charles faced war from Russia, Poland, Saxony (a state in the Holy Roman Empire), and Denmark. The resulting war was called the Great Northern War, and it consumed the entirety of Charles' reign.