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During the last half of the 1800s the dramatic industrial growth of the united states was caused by all of the following except

low tariffs on imports

the steel industry emerged in

western Pennsylvania and eastern ohio

the shipping of iron ore was made easier by

the invention of the steam engine

the purpose of the bessemerkelly process was to

burn the impurities out of iron by blowing air through it

the initial development of teh steel industry was most significantly aided by the

invention of bessemer and open-hearth processes

the steel industry of the late 1800s prospered in all of the following states except

Arkansas

teh duryea brothers invented the

first gasoline-driven motor vehicle

the new method of management called taylorism led directly to all of the following techniques except

vertical horizon

railroads contributed to the economic growth of the united states in all of the following ways except

by encouraging diversified control of the transportation industries

after the civil war the growth of railroads was aided by

subsidies from local, state, and federal governments

the concept of limited liability contributed to the development of corporations and was appealing to many americans because

all of the answers below

after the civil war the emergence of teh modern corporation was aided by all of the following developments except

the success of pool arrangements among various companies

andrew carnegie rose from rags to riches by

cutting costs and prices for his produts

during the late 1800s the great corporations introduced a new form of corporate managment based on the

all of the answers below

the combining of a number of firms engaged in teh same business such as the merging of many different petroleum drilling companies into one company is an example of

horizontal integration

in their actual dealings industrial tycoons acted as if free enterprise and competition

all of teh answers below

John d rockefeller and other captains of industry engaged in teh attempt to creat monopolies through all of the following methods except

conglomerates

a holding company is a form of consolidation in which a

central corporate body formally purchases teh stocks of various corporations

by the end of teh 1800s the use of pools trusts and holding companies by big business resulted in

a concentration of economic power in teh hands of a few

the american public opposed the large corporations and their misuse of teh power in the grounds that they were

threatening republican society

despite the common belief in teh rags to riches the power and wealth of teh most industrial tycoons were based on all of teh following dubious practices except

abusing the public offices to which they were elected

teh erie war of 1868 involved a form of corruption in which businessmen

gave payoffs to members of teh state legislature in return for their support of favorable legislation

teh philosophy of social darwinism promoted teh idea that

only the fittest individuals survived in a free marketplace

social darwinism

sociological theory that humans can progress only if left free to compete with one another with the fittest surviving and the perishing

the philosophy of social darwinism appealed to some american businessmen because it justified their belief that

their business tactics were legitimate

Herbert spencer argued that society as a whole and business in particular benefited when the weak were eliminated and teh strongest and fittest were left to prosper. this theory is called

social darwinism

teh gospel of wealth as advanced by andrew carnegie promoted the concept that people with wealth should

use their resources to help society

teh idea that a rich person should merely a trustee of wealth and should seek to use those funds for the good of teh community is known as

the gospel of wealth

russel h conwells lecture acres of diamonds, and horatio algers book sink or swim advanced teh idea that

great wealth was available to any industrious worker

the reform darwinism of men like lester frank ward argued that

men can control their future by using government to wipe out poverty by adjusting the environment to their needs

the political concept that a single tax on land would desstroy monopolies distribute wealth more equally and eliminate poverty was authored by

henry george

as an alternative to social darwinism henry georges 1879 book progress and poverty proposed

a tax on land that would distribute wealth more equitably

in edward bellemys novel looking backward nationalism is defined as

government control and distribution of economic resources

throughout the late 1800s and ealry 1900s most americans blamed monopolies for all of teh following problems except

teh rapid decline in the standard of living

as a result of industrialization of teh late 1800s american workers experienced a

rise in their standard of living

the explosive growth of an industrial labor force in the late 1800s was due to

all of the answers below

in the late 1800s the new immigrants to the eastern cities tended to come from

southern and eastern europe

teh traditional melting pot settlement pattern of immigrants was disappearing in the late 1800s b/c

the new immigrants tended to cluster into ethnic groups

in the late 1800s teh american laborers faced all of the following hardships except

paying high taxes on their wages

teh increased employment of women and children in the industry was due to

teh decreasing need for skilled labor in the factories

by the 1900 the percent of women who were wage earners was

20

although 38 state legislature passed child labor laws in the late 1800s these laws generally proved ineffective b/c the majority of children

were employed in agriculture which was usually exempt from the laws

in the 1870s efforts by teh labor unions to gain bargaining power were unsuccessful primarily b/c

many americans feared the tactics of teh unions and considered them too radical

the railroad strike of 1877 indicated that

business was becoming national rather than local in scope

teh knights of labor was

by definition open to anyone who toiled

in its efforts to help workers the american federation of labor sought

short-term gains such as pay increases teh eight- hour day adn improved working conditions

the american federation of labor(afl) advocated

strikes

teh haymarket square riot of 1886 was

an indication to many members of teh public that labor was riddled with radicals

the homestead strike of 1892 was significant to the future of american labor b/c it

crippled the power of teh steel workers unionize

teh outcome of teh pullman strike of 1894 indicated that the federal government would

intervene on teh side of management rather than labor

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