Chapter 6: blood

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Blood

-liquid connective tissue
-primary transports medium
- regulatory device: body temp, pH
- defends body against pathogen invasion

formed elements

-red blood cells
-platelets
-plasma

plasma

liquid that suspends the cell fragments
55% of volume of cell

plasma proteins

the most abundant organic molecules in blood
-help keep bllod pH around 7.4

osmotic pressure

a force that prevents excessive loss of plasma from the capillaries into tissues fluid

albumins

the most abundant plasma proteins and contribute most to plasma's osmotic pressure

globulins

called alpha, beta, and gamma
-help transport substances in the blood such as hormones, cholesterol, and iron

fibrinogen

an inactive plasma protein
-important for the formation of blood clots

gamma globulins

the antibodies
-important in fighting disease-causing pathogens

erythrocytes

small, biconcave disks that lack nucleus when mature
occur in great quantity 4-6 million per mm^3
-oxygen transport

hemoglobin

a pigment that makes red blood cells and blood red
-polypeptide chains
-iron containing

erythropoietin

stimulates the stem cells in bone marrow to produce more red blood cells

blood doping

any method if increasing the normal supply of red blood cells for the purpose of delivering oxygen more efficiently, reducing fatigue, and giving athletes a competitive edge.
-EPO injections

anemia

condition when there is a an insufficient number of red blood cells or the cells do not have enough hemoglobin
-tired, run down feeling

iron deficiency anemia

the most common form
inadequate amount of iron in the blood which causes insufficient hemoglobin synthesis

folic acid deficiency anemia

also lead to reduced RBC's particularly during pregnancy

hemolysis

the rupturing of red blood cells

sickle cell disease

a hereditary condition in which the individual has sickle shaped red blood cells that tend to rupture as they pass through the narrow capillaries.

hemolytic disease of the newborn

Condition in which antibodies in the mother's blood enter the fetus's blood and cause anemia, jaundice, edema, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Also called erythroblastosis fetalis., --anemia of a newborn that results from the destruction of the infant's RBCs by antibodies produced by the mother; usually due to an Rh blood type incompatibility

colony- stimulating factor

Protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes).

granular leukocytes

neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils
-multi-lobed nucleus
-granules-lyzozyme, myeloperoxidase, and catalase
Attack general invading pathogens.

agranular leukocytes

do not have cytoplasmic granules and have nonlobular nuclei
include the lymphocytes and monocytes

neutrophilis

*THE MOST NUMEROUS OF WBCs
*THEY ARE CONSIDERED THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINIST BACTERIA
*THE INCREASE THE NUMBERS ENGULF AND DEVOUR INVADERS AND ASSIST IN REPAIRING DAMAGED TISSUE
*SOMETIMES THEY DIE DURING THIS PROCESS AND COLLECT WITH BACTERIA TO FORM PUS
*FUNCTION IS PHAGOCYTOSIS
*ADULT PERCENTAGE IS 54% TO 62%
-aka polymorphonuclear leukocytes

eosinphils

-have a bilobed nucleus
-large granules

basophilis

u shaped or lobed nucleus
-dark blue color
-release a histamine associates with allergic reactions

lymphocytes

accounts fro 25-35% of all white blood cells. 2nd most abundant
- responsible for specific immunity to particular pathogens and toxins
B-produce antibodies
T-directly destroy pathogens

monocytes

the largest of the white blood cells
- active pagocytes, destroying pathogens m old cells and cellular debris

severe combined immunodeficiency disease

when the stem cells of whit blood cells lack and enzyme called adenosine

leukemia

uncontrolled cell growth
-infection of lymphocytes

thrombocytes

the result of fragmentation of large cells called megakaryocytes
-200 billion are created a day
-150,000-300,000 per mm3 of blood

prothrombin activator

a protein formed by clotting factors from damaged tissue cells and platelets; it converts prothrombin into thrombin, a step essential to forming a blood clot

thrombocytopenia

a bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, which impairs the clotting process
-a disorder in which the number of platelets is too low due to not enough being made in the bone marrow or the increased breakdown outside the marrow

thrombus

a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin

thromboembolism

Blockage of a blood vessel due to a piece of a clot breaking off from another location and preventing blood flow.

hemophilia

excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of one of the protein substances necessary for blood clotting

blood transfusion

the introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner

agglutination

the clumping together of cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies called agglutinins

Antigen

a foreign substance, often a polysaccharide or a protein, that stimulates an immune response
-blood type is named base on the antigens

Antibody

proteins made in response to an antigen in the body and bind to that antigen
-looks Y like

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