CA Life Science: Cell Processes & Energy / Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

auto _ _ _

Greek word meaning "self".

For example, autotroph is an organism that makes it's own food.

hetero _ _ _

Greek word meaning "other" or "different".

For example, heterotroph is an organism that depends on other organisms for food.

kinesis _ _ _

Greek word meaning "motion".

For example, cytokinesis occurs during cell division and is the process in which a cell's cytoplasm divides and organelles move into the two new cells that form.

photosynthesis

The process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food.

autotroph

An organism that makes its own food.

hetertroph

An organism that cannot make its own food. For example, a lion.

pigments

A colored chemical compound that absorbs light for energy to power 2nd stage of photosynthesis and can be used to color other materials.

chlorophyll

The main photosynthetic pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria.

stomata

Small openings on a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.

respiration

The process by which cells break down simple food molecules such as glucose to release the energy they contain.

fermentation

The process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen.

For example, organisms that live in the mud of swamps obtain their energy through this process.

cell cycle

The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.

interphase

The stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs.

replication

The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.

mitosis

The stage of the cell cycle during which the cells nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.

chromosome

A doubled rod of condensed chromatin.

cytokinesis

The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distribution the organelles into each of the two new cells.

differentiation

The process by which cells change in structure and become capable of carrying out specialized functions.

For example, when cells in an embryo become different from one another.

stem cells

Cells that respond to specific needs in the body and become specialized.

For example, stem cells are responsible for the creation of new red and white blood cells.

chloroplast

The organelle in which photosynthesis takes place.

prophase

The stage of the cell cycle when a spindle forms.

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