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Louis XIII

foundation and start of absolutism in France, becomes king after his dad Henry Navarre was assassinated, his mother acted as regent, than Cardinal Richelieu was appointed chief minister, his three goals (that he achieved) were: to reassert royal control over nobility, destroy political priviledges of huguenots, and increase french power in europe.he was Louis XIV's father. He let Cardinal Richelieu take charge. He kept religious reign of Hugenots but not political. He increased mortgages and taxes for the time period.

Anne of Austria

She is wife on the dead king Louis XIII. She becomes regent over her son and successor of Louis XIII, Louis XIV. But she allowed Cardinal Mazarin, Richelieu's trained successor, to dominate the government.Louie XIV's mother. She took over after Louis 13th died. She let Cardinal Mazarin rule, Richelieu's successor. Nobles in France objected his rule and they revolted. She brought a son to the court and she is part of the Hapsburg family, forming an alliance.

Cardinal Jules Mazarin

the true ruler of France was Richeliu's successor. His greatest triumph came in 1648, with the ending of the Thirty Year's War. Many people in France, particularly the nobles, hated him because he increased taxes and strengthened the central government. From 1648 to 1653, violent anti- Mazarin riots tore France apart.(real name is Mazarini) French Italian who was taught by Richelieu, and was his successor. He was accused of having an affair with Anne of Austria. Co ruler of France along side the queen. During his rule he defeated the Fronde. He revoked Edict of Nantes. Followed Richeleiu's lead.

Jean Baptiste Colbert

financial minister for Louis XIV, furthered prosperity by promoting good farming methods, building roads and canals (infrastructure), promoted existing industries with tariffs, aided new industries with subsidies, and increased mercantilism by establishing French trading posts in India and North American colonies. Louie 14th political and economic adviser. He strengthened the govt and economically he wanted to create a mercantilist/ regulated govt, by imposing high tariffs on goods. (hard for the average person economically) this was part of his downfall, it wasn't beneficial. He regulated a lot of the goods coming in and out of France (clothing etc).

Marquis de Louvois

Francois-Michel le Tellier, French military tactician for Louis XIV. created a standing paid army that was respected, Son of military administrator. Emphasized the army as foundation of France's power. Also wanted money allocated to border fortifications.administer of war. He helped Louie with the issue of war. He incrased the size of French army from 100,000 to 400,000. He forced aristocrats into military service. He founded a building where invalid soliders were kept. He was an expert tactitian for the wars. He captured the city of Straussburg. He introduced bayonets, rifles, etc. and pushed French military to be very successful. He supported the revoking of Edict of Nantes. He thought other countries were a threat & that they were going to revolt against France so he got people to be on border control.

Sebastien Le Preste, Seigneur de Vauban

military engineer who was famed for his skill of designing fortresses & breaking thru them. He was military adviser who advised Louie how to consolidate France's borders. He told Louie to maybe give up some land so their wouldn't be as much room for France's neighbors to get thru. He fought in war of Fronde & was found by Mazarin & converted to be an adviser to Louie 14th. After his victories he condemned the repeal of Edict of Nantes (economically).

Hugues de Lionne

involved in Foreign Affairs. Card Rich met him and didn't like him so then when Mazarin came to power he sent him as an adviser. He became secretary to Anne of Austria. He was elected to Ambassador extrodinar under the pope. The treaty of Pyrennes which secured the marriage b/w Maria Teresa and Louis. The Treaty of Breda helped end the Anglo Dutch war and allowed Louis to invade Spanish Netherlands.

Louis de Rouvroy

a duke who spent much of his life in King Louis XIV's court. his father was in the nobility. Mother was wealthy. He didn't agree with Louis and vice versa. He didn't agree with court system Louis had, through his writings as an author he let everyone know he didn't agree with Louis! (tell all book)

Duc de Saint-Simon

noble, writes about Louis XIV's love for praise, says he is not that smart, and ministers are taking nobles' power, believes king is quick to imprison and judge, - Was a member of one of the most prominent noble families of France.

Maria Teresa of Spain

She was born Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain at El Escorial to King Felipe IV in 1638 with the blood of many famous Spanish, Austrian, Italian and French royals in her veins. Her mother, Elizabeth of France, she left Spain and her beloved father in tears to be married to King Louis XIV of France.Such a prospect was intensely enticing to Anne of Austria, mother of Louis XIV and aunt of María Teresa, who desired an end to hostilities between her native country, Spain+ France; Maria Teresa of Spain , the first wife of Louis
She married the French king and shortly after Louis wanted to consummate the marriage, making it official so he could benefit. At first he was faithful to her but then soon had an affair with his soon to be second wife & mistress madame de Maintenon who had his children

Madame de Maintenon

the mistress, and later the wife, of French King Louis XIV, 2nd wife Louis XIV, not royal. very religious. increasingly conservative.

Jean-Baptiste Lully

(dance master) Louis had hired him as a dancer to compose music for his ballet. After this he was appointed as composer of Instrumental music to the king and was placed at head of king's private "band". (put him at the head of the chamber music for the king. He composed many different ballets. He was a lot like Louis because they both like discipline so they worked well together. When Louis was too old to dance he introduced opera to France. Est. the first dance school and academy, which becomes first governmental support of the arts (people copied all over the world) . He died by dropping his baton on his toe and got gangrene....

Charles LeBrun

master of 17th century French art. He glorified Louis as the sun king. He decorated chateau of Versailles, the Louve, and many churchs. Founding royal academy of painters. He made connections b/w Louie and Alexander the Great .

Jules Hardouin-Mansart

French Baroque architect. He represented the power of Louis. He built Versailles, house of mirrors, the convents, etc.

Jean Bodin

A writer in 16th century England who wrote The Six Books of the Commonwealth (1576), which strongly supported the divine right of kings., This was the man who created the theory of sovereignty in which a state becomes sovereign by claiming a monopoly over the instruments of justice, This was the man who created the theory of sovereignty in which a state becomes sovereign by claiming a monopoly over the instruments of justice

Jacques Bossuet

Catholic priest who was a strong advocator for Divine right of kings. Meaning that a king was chosen by God to rule. Disobey, and then disobey. Only had God to obey., A tutor for Louis XIV's son, developed religious argument for absolute monarchy in "Politics Drawn from the Words of Scripture" (late 1600s). Says that a monarch derives authority directly from God, and the monarch is God's lieutenant on earth. This theory makes the king's person sacred, and therefore, opposing the king is sacrilege. Idea that Kings are doing god's work, so they can do no wrong, and are ruling for the welfare of their people.

"divine right of kings"

the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God

Cardinal Richelieu

set up Louis 14th. He strengthing monarchy. Allowed Hugenots to practice religion but took away political and military rights Crushed nobles by having spies if higher people in nobility were conspiring against monarch. Sent out people to enforce the laws & collect taxes. Levied the tie to an increase it became a financial downfall in the end.

intendants

imposed by Louis XIV, they were law officials who collected taxes and administered justice, and were cause of much discontent, "government agents"; took power from nobles and consolidated power of the King

Lettres de cachet

The French version of an Executive Order in the ancien regime, it was a letter signed and sealed (the French Seal was called the cachet) by the King to one of his nobles or servants, ordering that servant to perform some service or other action that could not be appealed. Through this method, the King could order a parlement to pass a law over its own objection, or break up an assembly.

Louis XIV

The Making of le Grande Monarche

The Fronde

a french rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy, caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism

"One king, one law, one faith"

This was the slogan during Louis XIV's reign; L14 believed in being the absolute ruler and controlling everything, like France's religion.

Edict of Fountainbleau

october 1685; provide for the destruction of the Huguenots churches and the closing of their schools. replaced edict of nantes

Versailles

This enormous, ostentatious monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, served as a manifestation of the power of absolute monarchy. Meant to impress and scare nobility, foreigners, and commoners alike, this palace was where Louis XIV moved his court in order to keep them under his control and away from the uncontrollable social scene in Paris.

Nobles of the Blood

ehhhhhhhhh

Nobles of the Sword

nobles who had held ancient titles and whose forbears had gathered retainers to fight for the king, tried to regain the influence lost during the reign of Louis XIII, denounced Mazarin,, were old money descended from knights and the nobility of the middle ages

Nobles of the Robe

the group of the French nobility that acquired their positions by service or purchase

Appartement

3 evenings/week, 7-10, Louis was "at home" to his court, they watched a concert, played games, had banquet, relaxed etiquette

Treaty of Ryswick

Treaty ending the Nine Years' War / War of the League of Augsburg / King William's War; reaffirmed prewar colonial boundaries and allowed French to maintain control over half of Santo Domingo (present-day Haiti), The 1697 treaty of Ryswick was a formal agreement between France and Spain dividing the island Hispañola into two halfs. The east side was Spanish, and called the Dominacan Rebublic. The west side was French, and called Haiti. They both grew cotton, tobaco, sugar, coffee, and cattle. They needed land and labor. They had a trade triangle and the 3rd leg was slave trade and transportation.

War of Spanish Succession

a conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France., was a major European conflict over the succession to Spanish throne. In 1701, Charles II died and had bequeathed all of his possessions to Philip, duc d'Anjou — a grandson of the French King Louis XIV — who thereby became Philip V of Spain. The war began slowly, as the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I of Habsburg fought to protect his own dynasty's claim to the Spanish inheritance. As Louis XIV began to expand his territories more aggressively, however, other European nations (chiefly England, Portugal and the Dutch Republic) entered on the Holy Roman Empire's side to check French expansion.[6] Other states joined the coalition opposing France and Spain in an attempt to acquire new territories, or to protect existing dominions. The war was fought not only in Europe, but also in North America, where the conflict became known to the English colonists as Queen Anne's War, and by corsairs and privateers along the Spanish Main. Over the course of the fighting, some 400,000 people were killed.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire

Philip III

Spanish ruler who agreed to a truce with England in 1609 that recognized the independence of the United Provinces (the Netherlands). ; Spanish king who handed the reigns of government over to the lazy Duke of Lerma who ruled ineffectively.

Philip IV

King of Spain (r. 1621-1665) became king when Spain resumed large-scale fighting against the Dutch and the French. Burdens became too much under this regime and the effort to maintain committed to war brought spain down. Chief minister was Olivares

Gaspar Guzman

Chief minister of Spain during reign of Philip IV. Dominated king's every move and worked to revive the interests of the monarchy., his attempts to increase the power of the Spanish monarchy failed due to the number and strength of the aristocracy.

Count de Olivares

controller of the lazy king Philip IV of Spain; persuaded the king to allow the truce with the Dutch to lapse; got extremely cocky with himself and was kicked out of Spain by Philip IV; died in 1645

Edict of Nantes

Decreed by French King Henry IV in 1598, it granted Huguenots limited political freedoms and the freedom of worship and brought temporary civilian peace. Very unpopular in France among Catholics. Revoked by Louis XIV in 1685, leading to a massive emigration of French Huguenots.

Intendents

The traveling official appointed originally by Cardinal Richelieu to monitor the honesty and efficiency of provincial French authorities, royal commissioners; held a commission to perform specific tasks, often financial but also judicial and policing

Noblesse de la robe

nobility of the gown; created by Louis XIV; university educated men; wealthy middle classes; given titles by king and indebted loyalty; lifetime titles only

Dragonnades

Kept track of religion in homes, were put in homes of protestants to try and convert them to catholocism.

First Fronde

led by nobles of the robe - resented centralized power in France & taxes to pay the cost of the Thirty Years' War

Second Fronde

led by nobles of the sword - unsuccessful, most French thought the best hope for stability was in the crown was squashed

hohenzollern dynasty

Powerful German Family of Northern Germany situated in Prussia. Will become rivals of the Hapsburgs for supremacy in central Europe. Ruled Brandenburg since 1417; acquired the duchy of Cleves, as well the countries that border Brandenburg. East Prussia lay inside Poland and outside the authority of the Holy Roman Empire; Frederick William establishes these areas into a modern style. This dynasty did not possess a crown.

frederick william

Known as the Great Elector, this man was the first Hohenzollern leader, to move toward absolute monarchy and built a militaristic state in Prussia/ Brandenburg.

junkers

Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.

leopold I

strong ruler, Holy Roman Emperor, used aristocrats to rule, invited foreign aristocrats to court, his palace, Schonnbrun imitated Versailles

treaty of karlowitz

(1699) Ended the Siege of Vienna and turks gave Austria the lands of Hungry

magyars

Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary. also barbaric

Ivan the terrible

(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.

tsar

The Russian term for ruler or king; taken from the Roman word caesar.

boyars

Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts

time of troubles

Early 17th-century period of boyar efforts to regain power and foreign invasion after the death of Ivan IV without an heir; ended with the selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.

romanov dynasty

dynasty that favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.

peter the great

czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government

table of ranks

created by Peter, it creates opportunities for nonnobles to serve the state and join the nobility ... nobility based on merit

holy synod

A body created by Peter to make decisions for the Church

beard burnings

lol pretty it has to do with the modernization or "westernization" of russia and how they were not allowed to have beards....:p

battle of narva

1700, Charles XII of Sweden with 8,000 men routed Peter's army of 40,000 men. Peter resolved to improve army further and later came back at Battle of Poltava.

great northern war

Broke out as Peter attacked Sweden(with assistance from Poland and Denmark) in his quest to establish a Russian trading port on the Baltic. After being routed initially, Peter re-organized his army on the western model and eventually gained Estonia, Livonia, and Karella on the Baltic. War is decided with the Battle of Poltava, but ends with the Peace of Mystadt in 1721. Sweden becomes a second-rate power after the war.

peace of nystadt

ended the Great Northern War and gave Russia Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia

st. petersburg

Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden

axel oxenstierna

This man was the chief adviser of Gustavus who helped establish the highly efficient system of government of Sweden. Was usually allowed to rule during the reign of Gustavus' daughter Christina after Gustavus's death

christina

daughter of aldophus, she took over the throne when he died, and favored the nobility, so she pissed off a lot of peasents and merchants. she abdicated the throne to become a catholic (and sweden wasnt catholic)

riksdag

Swedish Parliament

charles XI

organized absolute monarchy, built bureaucracy, decreased power of Riksdag(swedish monarchy) , improved navy/military. son charles XII too ambitious and lost much territory to russia (great northern war)

charles XII

Swedish king who organized the Swedish forces during the Great Northern War, after defeating the Russians he went to invade Poland and Russia had a chance to reorganize

suleiman the magnificent

The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as Suleiman Kanuni, 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.

battle of lepanto

(1571) Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope

grand vizier

the senior advisor or prime minister who advises the sultan on state matters

janissaries

Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan

sigismund III

(1587-1632) An elected leader of Poland-Lithuania that wanted to gain the Swedish crown and stengthen the Roman Catholic church

sjem

Polish Parliament which reduced the peasantry to serfdom by the early 16th century

libertum veto

friggin stupid

libertum veto

stating that any member of the Sejm could have a say in stopping a law they didnt want or agree with, creating chaos

dutch republic

United Provinces of the Netherlands-1st half of 17th century was golden age-govt. consisted of organized confederation of 7 provinces each w/ rep. govt.

house of orange

This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution

states general

assembly of the estates of an entire country especially the sovereign body of the Dutch republic from 16th to 18th centuries

urban expansion plan

This increased city territory through a construction of three large canals to make more room for more population.

bourse

the stock exchange in Paris

burghers

medieval merchant-class town dwellers who resented interferences to their work such as fees, taxes, and rents. They demanded rights such as freedom from certain tolls and the right to govern their towns from feudal landlords.

stuart dynasty

After Queen Elizabeth Tudor's death in 1603, the Stuart Line of rulers came. Started with James I, King of Scotland. (Cousin of Elizabeth.) Then came Charles I, his son. Charles II. Then James II. Then William of Orange.

james I

the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625).....was an asshole

balanced polity

A term used to describe the relationship between the English Monarch and the Parliament who were expected to have an almost equal relationship in their efforts to rule England

gentry

people of standing(rank or position); people of good family or high social position; class of people just below nobility

charles I

son of James I who was King of England and Scotland and Ireland

petition of right

1628. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.

ship money

an impost levied in England to provide money for ships for national defense

archbishop laud

He was the archbishop of Canterbury and he supported King Charles I but opposed radical forms of Puritanism, and this resulted in his beheading.

great migration

Many Puritans migrated from England to North America during the 1620s to the 1640s due to belief that the Church of England was beyond reform. Ended in 1642 when King Charles I effectively shut off emigration to the colonies with the start of the English Civil War.

enclosure movement

The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.

long parliament

(1640-1648) desperate for money after Scottish invasion of northern England-Charles finally agreed to demands by Parliament: Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its own consent; had to meet a min. of once every 3 years; ship money abolished; leaders of persecution of Puritans to be tried and executed; Star Chamber abolished; common law courts supreme to king's courts; refused funds to raise army to defeat Irish revolt-Puritans came to represent majority in Parliament

triennial act

An Act of Parliament reluctantly agreed to by Charles I (who said it reduced his sovereign powers) which stated that there had to be a parliament of at least 50 days duration every three years.

john pym

outspoken member of Parliament, tried to impeach Duke of Buckingham, legally attacked Laud, and star chamber. King tries to threaten him but has already fled and returns a week later, after the King has left.

english civil war

civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I

oliver cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

new model army

The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.

roundheads

A group consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war

cavaliers

a royalist supporter of Charles I during the English Civil War

rump parliament

The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy.

levellers

During period of Commonwealth Cromwell faced extremists in all diretions - each with own remedies for country. Levellers(in later times would have been called advanced politicals democrats) were numerous in Puritan army. Spokesman John Lilburne, appealed to natural rights of Englishmen. Asked for a nearly universal manhood suffrace, equality of representation, a written constitution, and subordination of Parliament to a reformed body of voters.

instrument of government

Cromwell favored toleration on the issue of religion in England. The Instrument of Government gave all Christians, except Roman Catholics, the right to practice their faith. The constitution that had been prepared for by the army. It invested executive power in a lord protectorate and a council of state. Cromwell eventually tore up the constitution.

lord protector

Cromwell disbanded parliament and took this title when parliament moved to quit funding the New Model Army

restoration

the re-establishment of the British monarchy in 1660

charles II

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism

Cavalier parliament

Royalist Parliament that passed the acts of Corporation and Uniformity, also gave Charles a lot of money. Think cavaliers, which is a fancy name for the royalist soldiers.

declaration of indulgence

This was successfully passed under James II ending the Test Act and allowed the English to worship freely

test act of 1673

This was the bill passed that those who did not receive the Eucharist of the Anglican Church had little rights

james II

closet Catholic, fled to France during Glorious Revolution. last stuart to rule

glorious revolution of 1688

The bloodless revolution of the 1680's in England that dethroned Catholic King James and put Protestant William III and his wife Mary on the throne.

constitutionalism

advocacy of a system of government according to constitutional principles

english bill of rights

King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.

william and mary

King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.

toleration act of 1689

The Toleration Act of 1689 extended a degree of freedom of worship to all Christians except Catholics and Unitarians, although dissenters from the established church still had few political rights.

thomas hobbes

wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society

leviathan

Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.

johne locke

Life, Liberty, Property and social contract. believed in government to protect people's Natural Rights

two treaties of government

a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke; its purpose is to justify William III's ascension to the throne

social contract

an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society

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