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1. Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to the ability to store and retrieve information over time. The process of acquiring and using knowledge is called ________.
a. learning; perception
b. memory; perception
c. learning; cognition
d. memory; cognition

d; Moderate

2. Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to the ability to store and retrieve information over time.
a. learning
b. memory
c. cognition
d. perception

c; Easy

3. The process of acquiring and using knowledge is called ________.
a. learning
b. cognition
c. sensation
d. perception

b; Easy

4. Which of the following scientists could be considered a cognitive psychologist?
a. Dr. Abdalla, who investigates problem solving
b. Dr. Braithwaite, who studies formal reasoning processes
c. Dr. Clark, who examines how people encode information from the environment
d. All three scientists could be considered cognitive psychologists

d; Moderate

5. According to your text, the cognitive approach became the most important school of psychology in the ____.
a. 1940s
b. 1950s
c. 1960s
d. 1970s

c; Moderate

6. Which of these statements does NOT accurately identify a general difference between computers and the human brain?
a. Computers process information in a parallel fashion, whereas the brain processes information in a serial fashion.
b. The brain processes information slower than computers do.
c. Whereas computers distinguish between memory and processing, the brain does not.
d. The brain is more powerful than any computer.

a; Difficult

7. Which of these statements does NOT accurately identify a general difference between computers and the human brain?
a. Computers process information in a serial fashion, whereas the brain processes information in a parallel fashion.
b. The brain processes information faster than computers do.
c. Whereas computers distinguish between memory and processing, the brain does not.
d. The brain is more powerful than any computer.

b; Difficult

8. Which alternative correctly identifies a type of memory, a memory stage, or a memory process?
a. retrieval - memory stage
b. encoding - memory process
c. sensory memory - type of memory
d. implicit memory - memory stage
e. short-term memory - type of memory

b; Moderate

9. Which of the following describes explicit memory?
a. Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered
b. Memory of the first-hand experiences that we have had
c. Memory of facts and concepts about the world
d. The influence of experience on behavior, even when we are not aware of the effect

a; Easy

10. Which of the following describes episodic memory?
a. Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered
b. Memory of the first-hand experiences that we have had
c. Memory of facts and concepts about the world
d. The influence of experience on behavior, even when we are not aware of the effect

b; Easy

11. Which of the following describes semantic memory?
a. Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered
b. Memory of the first-hand experiences that we have had
c. Memory of facts and concepts about the world
d. The influence of experience on behavior, even when we are not aware of the effect

c; Easy

12. Which of the following describes implicit memory?
a. Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered
b. Memory of the first-hand experiences that we have had
c. Memory of facts and concepts about the world
d. The influence of experience on behavior, even when we are not aware of the effect

d; Easy

13. It is 10:15 a.m. on a mid-semester Wednesday. Three sections of introductory psychology are meeting on the second floor of Old Main. In Room 201, Ms. Romero is describing implicit memory. Across the hall in 204, Dr. Darby's class is considering the differences between sensory and short-term memory. Finally, in Old Main 209, Dr. Eastwood is writing the terms 'encoding,' 'storage,' and 'retrieval' on the whiteboard. Ms. Romero is discussing memory ______. Dr. Darby's class is examining memory ________. Dr Eastwood is describing memory _________.
a. processes; types; stages
b. stages; processes; types
c stages; types; processes
d. types; processes; stages

d; Difficult

14. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between explicit memory and episodic memory?
a. Explicit memory is one type of episodic memory.
b. Episodic memory is one type of explicit memory.
c. Explicit memory and episodic memory are two different memory stages.
d. Explicit memory and episodic memory are the same thing.

b; Moderate

15. Having done "21 for 21" shots the night before, Deanna barely remembers her 21st birthday. That is, her _________ memory is sketchy.
a. procedural
b. semantic
c. episodic
d. working

c

16. Cory knows that the capital of Vermont is Montpelier. This is an example of a(n) _______ memory.
a. semantic
b. explicit
c. procedural
d. both A and B

d; Difficult

17. Knowing how to serve a badminton birdie is an example of a (n) ________ memory.
a. episodic
b. semantic
c. procedural
d. explicit

c; Moderate

18. Ron moved from Alabama to Georgia ten years ago. "My fifth-grade teacher made us memorize the names of all the counties in Alabama," Ron tells his friend Rory. Rory tests Ron by giving him a list of thirty counties - 15 Alabama counties, mixed in with 15 counties from other states. "Ok, pick out the Alabama counties," Rory challenges Ron. Which method does Rory's test use?
a. rehearsal
b. recognition
c. reminiscence
d. recall

...

...

b; Moderate

19. An essay question is a _________ test of memory; a multiple-choice question is a __________.
a. recall; recall test also
b. recall; recognition test
c. recall; relearning test
d. recognition; recognition test also

b; Easy

20. "Discuss several factors that contributed to the economic collapse of late 2008," reads a question on the midterm in an Economics course. Such a question is a ________ test of _______ memory.
a. recall; semantic
b. recall; procedural
c. recognition; semantic
d. recognition; procedural

a; Moderate

21. In a memory experiment, Dr. Aziz gives one group of participants a recognition test of a list of words they had seen earlier; another group is asked to recall the words. What might you predict regarding the relative performance of the two groups on the memory test?
a. The two groups should perform equivalently.
b. The recall group should outperform the recognition group.
c. The recall group should outperform the recognition group, as long as the test is given shortly after participants first see the words.
d. The recognition group should outperform the recall group.
e. No consistent prediction can be made without a consideration of many other variables.

d

22. A typical multiple-choice question on a psychology test is an example of a ___________ test of _________memory.
a. recall; implicit
b. recall; explicit
c. relearning; implicit
d. recognition; explicit

d; Difficult

23. Janna is puzzling over a fill-in-the-blank question on a sociology test. Answering the question correctly requires Janna to use ________ memory.
a. explicit
b. implicit
c. recognition
d. episodic

a; Moderate

24. Which of the following memory measures is correctly described?
a. recall -- involves retrieving material from memory after it has been learned
b. recognition -- entails determining whether material has learned before
c. relearning -- involves studying material again after it has been learned already but then forgotten
d. Each of these is correctly described.

d; Difficult

25. Which of the following is true about recall memory?
a. Involves retrieving material from memory after it has been learned
b. Entails determining whether material has learned before
c. Involves studying material again after it has been learned already but then forgotten
d. Involves knowledge of how to do things

a; Easy

26. Which of the following is true about recognition memory?
a. Involves retrieving material from memory after it has been learned
b. Entails determining whether material has learned before
c. Involves studying material again after it has been learned already but then forgotten
d. Involves knowledge of how to do things

b; Easy

27. Which of the following is true about relearning?
a. Involves retrieving material from memory after it has been learned
b. Entails determining whether material has learned before
c. Involves studying material again after it has been learned already but then forgotten
d. Involves knowledge of how to do things

c; Easy

28. With respect to the memory measures described in your text, which of the following statements is true?
a. Relearning tests can go beyond "correct" versus "incorrect"
b. Recognition tests can go beyond "correct" versus "incorrect"
c. Recall tests can go beyond "correct" versus "incorrect"
d. All of the above are true

a; Moderate

29. Relearning measures allow the assessment of:
a. procedural memory, such as that involved in playing a video game
b. semantic memory, such as that involved in knowing the state capitals
c. semantic memory, such as that involved in crocheting a sweater
d. both procedural memory, such as that involved in playing a video game, and semantic memory, such as that involved in knowing the state capitals

d; Difficult

30. "I know it! It's um . . . um . . . ," begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is engaged in a test of her ________ memory.
a. external
b. explicit
c. extrinsic
d. internal

b; Moderate

31. Memories of which we're not consciously aware are called ________ memories.
a. internal
b. subliminal
c. subconscious
d. implicit

d; Easy

32. Which of the following is NOT an example of procedural memory?
a. knowing how to play the piano
b. knowing how to skip stones
c. knowing that your first kiss occurred at a middle-school dance
d. knowing how to crochet

c; Moderate

33. Procedural is to semantic as _________ is to __________
a. explicit; implicit
b. memory process; memory stage
c. implicit; explicit
d.. short-term memory; long-term memory

c; Difficult

34. Which of the memory measures described in your text might be used to assess implicit memory?
a. recognition
b. relearning c. word fragment test d. B and C

d; Difficult

35. Over time, you have learned to salivate at the mere sight of a chili pepper. This type of learning reflects _________ memory
a. implicit b. explicit c. procedural
d. both A and B

a; Moderate

36. Some psychologists consider classical conditioning to be a form of implicit memory. Which of the following is probably the BEST reason for suggesting that classical conditioning is a type of implicit memory?
a. Classical conditioning occurs outside awareness.
b. Classical conditioning requires conscious awareness.
c. Classical conditioning is one mechanism whereby we learn actions and skills.
e. Classical conditioning applies mainly to existing rather than new behaviors.

a; Moderate

37. In an implicit memory experiment, participants are first briefly exposed to unusual, lengthy words in Phase I; later in the week, in Phase II, participants return for a word completion task, in which they attempt to fill in the missing letters of each of a list of words (e.g., p _ _ _ u d _ _ e). Some of the words correspond to Phase I words; others do not. The Phase I word is termed a _______; Phase II words that also appeared in Phase I should be completed ________ accurately than those that did not.
a. prime; less
b. prime; more
c. probe; less
d. probe; more

b; Moderate

38. In an implicit memory experiment, participants are first briefly exposed to unusual, lengthy words in Phase I; later in the week, in Phase II, participants return for a word completion task, in which they attempt to fill in the missing letters of each of a list of words (e.g., p _ _ _ u d _ _ e). Some of the words correspond to Phase I words; others do not. Which pair below correctly identifies the variables of interest in this study?
a. Phase I or II—independent variable; whether Phase II words had appeared in Phase I - dependent variable
b. Phase I or II—independent variable; word completion accuracy—dependent variable
c. whether Phase II words had appeared in Phase I—independent variable; Phase I or II—dependent variable
d. whether Phase II words had appeared in Phase I—independent variable; word completion accuracy—dependent variable.

d; Moderate

39. Based on research described in your text (Bargh et al., 1996), which of the following statements is true of priming effects?
a. Priming effects are very small, and have few effects on behavior.
b. Priming effects are significant, but have few effects on behavior.
c. Priming effects are significant and influence behavior.
d. Priming effects are significant, but they only influence behavior when one is aware of them.

c; Moderate

40. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of stages in the three-stage model of memory?
a. sensory memory → short-term memory → long-term memory
b. short-term memory → sensory memory → long-term memory
c. short-term memory → working memory → long-term memory
d. working memory → short-term memory → long-term memory

a; Moderate

41. Which of the following are types of implicit memory?
a. Classical conditioning and Priming
b. Iconic and Echoic
c. Semantic and Episodic
d. Procedural and Semantic

a; Moderate

42. Which of the following are types of explicit memory?
a. Classical conditioning and Priming
b. Iconic and Echoic
c. Semantic and Episodic
d. Procedural and Priming

c; Moderate

43. Which of the following statements is true about iconic and echoic memory?
a. Iconic and echoic memory are types of sensory memory.
b. Iconic and echoic memory are types of explicit memory.
c. Iconic and echoic memory are types of implicit memory.
d. Iconic and echoic memory are types of classical conditioning

a; Moderate

44. Information may last for _______ seconds in sensory memory; the capacity of sensory memory is _______.
a. a few; small
b. a few; large
c. about 30; small
d. about 30; large

b; Difficult

45. The study of sensory memory is associated with:
a. Elizabeth Loftus
b. George Miller
c. George Sperling
d. Herbert Simon

c; Moderate

46. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, psychologist George Sperling conducted key studies of ______ memory.
a. sensory
b. short-term
c. semantic
d. episodic

a; Moderate

47. George Sperling conducted a study in which he varied the interval between the presentation of a letter matrix and an auditory recall cue. Sperling measured the proportion of letters participants could recall from the matrix. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding this study?
a. A graph of the results of this study would show the accuracy of recall on the y-axis.
b. The interval between the matrix and the cue is a dependent variable.
c. All the letters in the matrix are stored in memory.
d. Sperling's study provided knowledge regarding sensory memory.

b; Difficult

48. Psychologists use the term ______ memory to refer to "photographic" memory.
a. pictographic
b. engrammatic
c. iconic
d. eidetic

D; Moderate

49. "She did WHAT??" your roommate exclaims as you relate a story about a mutual friend. Your roommate is processing your story in _________ memory.
a. working
b. sensory
c. episodic
d. implicit

a; Moderate

50. To which of the following is working memory most similar?
a. a legal pad on which you jot temporary notes
b. a calendar item reminding you of a future obligation
c. a file on a computer hard drive
d. a portrait hanging in a museum

a; Moderate

51. On your computer desktop, you can see all sorts of different files, each immediately accessible. Because you are actively working on them, and because you can open them whenever you want, these files are analogous to the information held in:
a. semantic memory
b. working memory
c. sensory memory
d. procedural memory

b; Moderate

52. As you work on a complex multiplication problem in your head, the numbers you are manipulating are in your __________ memory, and the multiplication tables you are drawing on are in _________ memory.
a. working; long-term
b. working; sensory
c. long-term; working
d. sensory; working

a; Moderate

53. Process is to structure as __________ memory is to _________ memory.
a. explicit; implicit
b. sensory; working
c. long-term; working
d. working; short-term

d; Difficult

54. The central executive is:
a. an aspect of sensory memory
b. a component of working memory
c. a type of implicit memory
d. a form of explicit memory

b; Moderate

55. When we look up a number in the phone book, close the book, and then begin to dial the number, we are relying on
a. short term memory
b. iconic memory
c. working memory
d. long-term memory

a; Easy

56. __________ examined how long information can last in sensory memory. __________ investigated the duration of short-term memory.
a. Peterson and Peterson; Sperling
b. Peterson and Peterson; Peterson and Peterson also
c. Sperling; Peterson and Peterson
d. Sperling; Sperling also

c; Difficult

57. Rehearsal serves to:
a. refresh sensory memory
b. keep information in short-term memory
c. help transfer information to long-term memory
e. both B and C

e; Moderate

58. Which of the following describes short-term memory?
a. The brief storage of visual or auditory information
b. Memory where small amounts of information can be kept for several seconds
c. Processes that we use to interpret and store information
d. Memory storage that can last for years

b; Easy

59. Which of the following describes sensory memory?
a. The brief storage of visual or auditory information
b. Memory where small amounts of information can be kept for several seconds
c. Processes that we use to interpret and store information
d. Memory storage that can last for years

a; Easy

60. Which of the following describes working memory?
a. The brief storage of visual or auditory information
b. Memory where small amounts of information can be kept for several seconds
c. Processes that we use to interpret and store information
d. Memory storage that can last for years

c; Easy

61. The conscious repetition of information to ensure its survival in short-term memory is termed ________ rehearsal.
a. primary
b. mnemonic
c. rote
d. maintenance

d; Easy

62. Which of the following expressions best reflects the capacity of short-term memory?
a. one or two items
b. unlimited
c. about seven, plus or minus two items
d. about a dozen items

c; Moderate

63. In the words of George Miller, the capacity of short-term memory is the "magical number _________."
a. nine, plus or minus two
b. six, plus or minus one
c. five, plus or minus two
d. seven, plus or minus two

d; Easy

64. Tommy is repeating a series of digits in the order in which he heard an experimenter read them. The experimenter is testing the capacity of Tommy's _______ memory. Tommy should be able to repeat about _________ digits correctly.
a. short-term; 4
b. short-term; 7
c. short-term; 9
d. sensory; 4

b; Moderate

65. Grouping pieces of information together to expand the effective capacity of short-term memory is termed _________.
a. chunking
b. clumping
c. consolidating
d. compacting

a; Easy

66. "What's your social?" the associate asks over the phone. "One, six, four . . ." you begin. After a brief pause, you continue, "seventy-two . . . sixteen thirty-eight." To ease the burden on the associate's short-term memory, you are giving the number in ______ rather than as individual digits.
a. nodes
b. clumps
c. clusters
d. chunks

d; Moderate

67. When you tell an acquaintance your telephone number, you do not recite the digits one by one at a constant rate, as in "3, 3, 7, 2, 3, 4, 8, 3, 9, 2." Rather, you might say, "3, 3, 7 . . . 2, 3, 4 . . . 83, 92." This exemplifies ________, a strategy to enhance ______ memory.
a. consolidation; sensory
b. consolidation; short-term
c. chunking; sensory
d. chunking; short-term

d; Moderate

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:

...

68. Explicit memory underlies the ability to swing a golf club.

F; Easy

69. Relearning measures allow the assessment of both implicit and explicit memory.

T; Moderate

70. Primes have little real effect on behavior.

F; Easy

71. Sensory memory can hold only a small amount of information.

F; Moderate

72. The capacity of short-term memory is about 7 items.

T; Easy

73. Chunking serves to increase the capacity of sensory memory.

F; Moderate

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS:

...

74. Semantic and episodic memory are subdivisions of __________ memory.

explicit; Moderate

75. Scores on a recall test of memory are likely to be ___________ than those on a recognition test of memory.

lower; Difficult

76. "It's like riding a bike; once you know how, you don't forget." This adage suggests that procedural memories do not require conscious attempts at recall; that is, procedural memories are often ________.

implicit; Moderate

77. Implicit memory is often studied through experiments that use ________.

primes/priming; Moderate

78. You have just listened to your current favorite song on your iPod. You can still hear traces of the final chorus, even though the song has just ended. For a few seconds, the song will be represented in auditory sensory memory, or ________ memory.

echoic; Moderate

79. A ________ is a meaningful group of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short- term memory.

chunk; Easy

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