Psych 8.5 thru 8.8

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84. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last?
a. encoding → storage → retrieval
b. storage → retrieval → encoding
c. encoding → retrieval → storage
d. storage → encoding → retrieval

a; Easy

85. Which of the following is NOT one of the three memory processes identified in your text?
a. encoding
b. priming
c. storage
d. retrieval

b; Moderate

86. When we use the term "remembering" in day-to-day life, we are making reference to the memory process of:
a. rehearsal
b. retrieval
c. encoding
d. storage

b; Moderate

87. Amelia remarks that she needs to learn her text's section on the structures of the brain for an upcoming test. Brian responds that he couldn't remember the function of the hippocampus on a test the preceding day. With respect to the three memory processes described in your text, Amelia is making reference to _________. Brian is referring to ______.
a. encoding; storage
b. retrieval; encoding
c. retrieval; storage
d. encoding; retrieval

d; Moderate

88. When answering such questions as "Who was your date to the Junior Prom?" or "Which costume did you wear last Halloween?" you are relying most explicitly on the memory process of:
a. encoding
b. rehearsal
c. priming
d. retrieval

d; Moderate

89. Clarice presses a key on her computer to save a document she has been editing. A file is then created on her computer's hard drive. The computer's action is most similar to the memory activity of _________. The computer's hard drive is similar to _________ memory in the three-stage memory model.
a. retrieval; long-term
b. priming; short-term
c. encoding; long-term
d. encoding; short-term

c; Easy

90. An investigator asks some participants to count the number of letters in each of the names on a long list of Russian rivers. She asks other participants to pronounce each river's name and asks, for instance, "Does it rhyme with Vienna?" (for Lenna). She asks a third group of participants to place the river on a map and to observe into which larger body of water it flows. Which approach memory concept is this investigator most likely interested in?
a. context-dependent memory
b. schemas
c. state-dependent memory
d. elaborative encoding

d; Moderate

91. Which statement best expresses the relationship between attention and the memory activity of encoding?
a. Attention is a byproduct of encoding.
b. Attention is unrelated to encoding.
c. Attention is the same as encoding.
d. Attention is necessary for encoding.

d; Moderate

92. Drew is unable to recall whether Lincoln's head faces left or right on the penny. Which of the following is probably the best explanation for Drew's memory failure?
a. The information is difficult to retrieve, because it is stored along with so many other pieces of information in Drew's long-term memory.
b. The information was learned so long ago that it is no longer stored in Drew's long-term memory.
c. The information was not encoded, because Drew never really paid attention to Lincoln's head on the penny.
d. The information was immediately displaced from Drew's working memory after it was encoded.

c; Moderate

93. Which of the following is the best reason for why we have trouble remembering the license plate number of a car that we just passed ten minutes ago?
a. Working memory lasts only a minute or so.
b. License plate numbers are too difficult to remember easily.
c. We probably never encoded the number in the first place.
d. The memory, though present, is too difficult to retrieve except under special circumstances, such as hypnosis or substantial amounts of stress.

c; Moderate

94. Which of the following defines elaborative encoding?
a. Learning by processing in ways that make information relevant
b. Learning by processing information in procedural memory
c. Learning by processing simpler materials as complex material
d. Learning by rehearsing

a; Easy

95. Dr. Fernald is conducting a memory experiment. One group of participants has to decide whether each of a list of words begins with the same letter as a target word; a second group has to determine whether each of a list of words rhymes with a target word; finally, a third group has to determine whether each of a list of words is a synonym or an antonym of a target word. Later, all participants are asked to recall the list words. According to levels-of-processing theory, which group's performance should be the highest? The lowest?
a. highest—synonym/antonym group; lowest—same letter group
b. highest—same letter group; lowest—synonym/antonym group
c. highest—rhyme group; lowest—same letter group
d. highest—synonym/antonym group; lowest—rhyme group

a; Difficult

96. A researcher presents participants with a list of words. She asks the participants to count the letters in the words in Group 1, to come up with rhymes for the words in Group 2, and to produce synonyms for the words in Group 3. Later, she tests the participants' memory for all of the words. From best to worst, which pattern correctly indicates how well words in each group will be remembered?
a. 1, 2, 3
b. 3, 2, 1
c. 3, 1, 2
d. 1, 3, 2

b; Moderate

97. According to the principle of elaborative encoding, which of the following study techniques would best enhance memory?
a. highlighting important passages in the text
b. copying the text into a notebook
c. reading aloud important passages in the text
d. focusing on the meaning of important passages in the text

d; Easy

98. According to the principle of elaborative encoding, which of the following students should retrieve information more successfully on classroom tests?
a. Grant, who attempts to memorize his notes
b. Harry, who attempts to relate the material to his own experiences.
c. Irene, who attempts to relate her notes to information she has learned in other classes
d. These students should retrieve information equally well on tests

b; Easy

99. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship, if any, between elaborative encoding and the self-reference effect?
a. Elaborative encoding is synonymous with the self-reference effect.
b. The self-reference effect is essentially the opposite of elaborative encoding.
c. Elaborative encoding is an example of the self-reference effect.
d. The self-reference effect is an example of elaborative encoding.

d; Difficult

100. Among the very first attempts to study forgetting scientifically were made by the German psychologist __________.
a. Ebbinghaus
b. Wundt
c. Weber
d. Muller

a; Moderate

101. Which of the following statements BEST describes the forgetting function that Ebbinghaus discovered?
a. Material is forgotten at a relatively constant rate once it has been learned.
b. Material is forgotten relatively rapidly at first, then the rate of forgetting slows down.
c. Material is forgotten at a relatively slow rate at first, then the rate of forgetting speeds up.
d. Nothing is ever really forgotten.

b; Moderate

102. What does Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve tell us about the way we forget material over time?
a. We forget information at a constant rate.
b. At first, we forget very little of what we have learned, but as time passes, the rate of forgetting accelerates.
c. Most forgetting happens immediately after we learn material; the rate of forgetting slows down as time goes by.
d. A lot of forgetting happens immediately after we learn material; the rate of forgetting then speeds up as time goes by.
e. We forget information at a variable and unpredictable rate as time passes.

c; Moderate

103. Which of the following best describes the results of Ebbinghaus's work on forgetting?
a. You'll remember what you learn pretty well for a day or two, but then you'll begin rapidly forgetting the material.
b. Beginning immediately, you'll slowly forget what you've learned at a relatively constant rate.
c. You'll forget most of it right away, and you'll keep on forgetting more of it, though at a slower rate.
d. You'll forget a lot of it right away, and you'll keep on forgetting more of it, at an even faster rate.

c; Moderate

104. According to the ________ effect, _________ practice leads to better learning than __________ practice.
a. spacing; distributed; massed
b. spacing; massed; distributed
c. spacing; massed; spaced
d. distributive; distributed; massed

a; Moderate

105. Erika usually 'crams' for tests the night before they are given. Francisco generally studies each of his courses for about 45 minutes each night throughout the term. Erika relies on __________, whereas Francisco uses _________.
a. maintenance processing; elaborative processing
b. distributed practice; massed practice
c. massed practice; elaborative processing
d. massed practice; distributed practice

d; Easy

106. Which of the following is true about studying?
a. Studying and rehearsing past initial mastery increases interference, impairing memory.
b. Studying and rehearsing past initial mastery doesn't actually hurt, but it doesn't help either.
c. Studying and rehearsing past initial mastery improves short-term retention, but doesn't do much over the longer term.
d. Studying and rehearsing past initial mastery improves long-term retention.

d; Moderate

107. "I know it! It's um . . . um . . . It starts with 'G'," begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is falling prey to the _______ effect.
a. tip-of-the-tongue
b. flashbulb memory
c. source confusion
d. retrograde interference

a; Easy

108. Almost everybody has had the feeling of knowing the answer to a question, but not being quite able to say it. This is called the "tip-of the-tongue" phenomenon, and is a failure of __________.
a. retention
b. storage
c. retrieval
d. rehearsal

c; Easy

109. On his psychology exam, Mickey is asked to recall the name of the physiologist who worked on classical conditioning. He cannot quite remember the name, but he knows that it starts with a P and is two syllables long. Mickey is experiencing:
a. repression
b. proactive interference
c. retrograde amnesia
d. the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

d; Easy

110. Jamal's introductory psychology class is held in Room A. For the final exam, the students in Jamal's class are divided among Rooms A, B, and C. Jamal's memory for the material is likely to be best if he takes the test in which room?
a. Room A
b. the largest of the three rooms
c. the smallest of the three rooms
d. the room most different from Room A

a; Moderate

111. On a test of recall, participants who learn a list of words in one room do better if tested in that same room than if tested in a different room. This finding is best explained by:
a. elaborative encoding
b. the spacing effect
c. state-dependent learning
d. context-dependent learning

d; Moderate

112. Ron receives some stock tips when he's slightly 'buzzed' at an office party. Based on the notion of state-dependent memory, what might you predict regarding the likelihood that Ron will recall the tips the following week?
a. He will probably best remember the tips if he is sober.
b. He will probably best remember the tips if he has had a few drinks.
c. He will probably best remember the tips if he is drunk.
d. He will remember the tips equally well regardless of his state of intoxication.

b; Moderate

113. Our ability to recall an item from a list depends on where in the list the item occurs. This is the __________ effect.
a. serial position b. list memory c. cereal position d. item order

a; Easy

114. How might you describe the shape of the function relating the probability of an item's recall to the item's position on a list?
a. U-shaped
b. squiggly
c. a linear, negatively sloped line
d. an inverted-U shape

a; Moderate

115. A research participant is required to report as much of a poem as he can remember immediately after having read the poem once. We would expect the greatest number of recall errors in lines:
a. at the beginning of the poem
b. in the middle of the poem
c. at the end of the poem
d. at the beginning or the end of the poem

b; Moderate

116. Before going home, Dr. Rosen tries to flesh out his patient notes. He can remember the first and last sessions of the day, but his memory of the middle ones is a bit fuzzy. Dr. Rosen's memory reflects the ________ effect.
a. primacy
b. recency
c. serial position
d. A, B, and C

d; Difficult

117. The primacy effect refers to the fact that
a. the most important items in a list are more most to be remembered.
b. the last items presented in a list are most likely to be remembered.
c. the first items presented in a list are most likely to be remembered.
d. the items in a list which have the greatest emotional impact are most likely to be remembered.

c; Moderate

118. "Cat food, cola, toothpaste," your roommate begins reciting items into the phone as you throw your books in the backseat and get into your car; you're supposed to hit the store on the way home. He continues to list a few more items. Finally, he wraps up: "Coffee creamer, spaghetti sauce, dish liquid, and ice tea mix." You forget a couple of things, but you do manage to get the cat food, cola, and toothpaste. Your memory for these items reflects the _________ effect.
a. primacy
b. recency
c. serial memory
d. item order

a; Moderate

119. One evening, you examine the schedule for your favorite football team. The team plays sixteen games each season. Later you try recalling that schedule for a friend who likes the same team you do. Chances are, you will recall opponents at the beginning of the schedule particularly well. What is this phenomenon called?
a. the list effect
b. the primacy effect
c. the consolidation effect
d. context-dependent learning
e. overlearning

...

...

b; Moderate

120. The "recency effect" refers to the fact that:
a. the last items on a list are more likely to be remembered than the middle items
b. the first several items on a list are more likely to be remembered than the middle items
c. rehearsed items are more likely to be remembered than unrehearsed items
d. the most personally relevant items on a list are most likely to be remembered

a; Moderate

121. "Cat food, cola, toothpaste," your roommate begins reciting items into the phone as you throw your books in the backseat and get into your car; you're supposed to hit the store on the way home. He continues to list a few more items. Finally, he wraps up: "Coffee creamer, spaghetti sauce, dish liquid, and ice tea mix." You forget a few things, but the Ragu, Dawn, and Lipton's are in the bag. Your memory for these items reflects the _________ effect.
a. primacy
b. serial order
c. list memory
d. recency

d; Moderate

122. Suppose you begin to list all the classes you've ever taken in college. Chances are, you will recall your last few classes particularly well. What is this phenomenon called?
a. chunking
b. the primacy effect
c. the recency effect
d. memory consolidation

c; Moderate

123. In ________ interference, information learned earlier disrupts the recall of information learned more recently; in _________ interference, recently learned information disrupts the recall of information learned earlier.
a. retroactive; proactive
b. proactive; retroactive
c. regressive; progressive
d. progressive; regressive

b; Difficult

124. Bruce watches a new television program with enthusiasm. He then watches a second, similar program. Bruce later finds it difficult to remember the details of the second program; he finds that details about the first program keep intruding. What has probably occurred?
a. interference
b. misinformation
c. overlearning
d. repression

a; Moderate

125. Nana is taking a Spanish final at the end of the spring semester. The problem is, the French vocabulary she learned the semester before keeps getting in the way, causing her to forget Spanish words. Nana is experiencing ________ interference.
a. retroactive
b. progressive
c. proactive
d. retrograde

c; Moderate

126. Which of the following defines retroactive interference?
a. Memory impairment that occurs when earlier learning impairs later learning
b. Memory impairment that occurs when later learning is impaired by earlier learning
c. Memory impairment that occurs when longer lists come before shorter lists
d. Memory impairment that occurs in short-term memory

b; Moderate

127. Which of the following defines proactive interference?
a. Memory impairment that occurs when earlier learning impairs later learning
b. Memory impairment that occurs when later learning is impaired by earlier learning
c. Memory impairment that occurs when longer lists come before shorter lists
d. Memory impairment that occurs in short-term memory

a; Moderate

128. Owen has trouble remembering a friend's new phone number; he keeps recalling the old number instead. Completing a rental application, Pippa finds she can't recall one of her previous addresses, as she's had several addresses since. Owen is experiencing __________ interference; Pippa is experiencing _________.
a. retrograde; anterograde interference
b. retroactive; retroactive interference as well
c. proactive; proactive interference as well
d. proactive; retroactive interference

d; Difficult

129. In a lexical decision task in which participants must judge whether a string of letters forms a word in English, participants are first shown the string BANANA. Based on what you know about categories and spreading activation, which of the following strings might participants then judge the most rapidly?
a. APPLE
b. ANANAB
c. MAVEN
d. BANDANA

a; Moderate

130. Research participants are asked to judge whether or not a string of letters forms a word in English. They are first given the string CABBAGE. Based on what you know about categories and spreading activation, which of the following strings might participants then judge the most rapidly?
a. CRIBBAGE
b. CARROT
c. TOILET
d. CABOOSE

b; Moderate

131. Participants are asked to judge whether a string of letters forms a word in English. The first string they receive is the word VIOLIN. On a subsequent list of words, results show that the participants are substantially faster at answering "Yes" to the word PIANO than to the word TOILET or BASKET. Which concept does this result most clearly illustrate?
a. episodic memory
b. state-dependent learning
c. the spacing effect
d. spreading activation

d; Moderate

132. Often, one memory triggers others. Of the following, which is the most likely mechanism by which this might occur?
a. spreading activation
b. serial activation
c. network priming
d. distributed processing

a; Moderate

133. Properties that must be true of all members of a category are termed ________ features.
a. prototypical
b. schematic
c. defining
d. essential

c; Moderate

134. Mothers are necessarily female. Being female is thus a _________ feature of the category 'mother.'
a. schematic
b. prototypical
c. essential
d. defining

d; Moderate

135. A prototype is:
a. a group of objects sharing one or more common features
b. the first example of a concept that one encounters
c. the most frequent or common example of a concept
d. the best or most typical example of a concept

d; Moderate

136. Which of the following is most likely the prototype of the category "fruit"?
a. olive
b. apple
c. persimmon
d. blueberry

b; Easy

137. A schema is:
a. a conceptual framework for interpreting a situation
b. a form of proactive interference
c. an important result of decay
d. an item that has been forgotten

a; Easy

138. Dr. Tranh has given so many lectures that he gives little thought to what he expects might happen: He assumes students will assemble, take notes, and occasionally ask a question. That Dr. Tranh finds the process so routine most clearly reflects the development of:
a. a semantic association
b. explicit memory
c. a schema
d. a retrieval path

c; Easy

139. Which of the following alternatives best captures the relationship between the concept of a schema and that of a stereotype?
a. The concept of a schema is unrelated to that of a stereotype.
b. The concept of a schema is broader than that of a stereotype.
c. The concept of a schema is narrower that of a stereotype.
d. The concept of a schema is the same as that of a stereotype.

b; Moderate

140. Long-term potentiation refers to the process whereby
a. the number of synaptic and dendritic connections between neurons increases with experience.
b. memories become fixed and stable for the long term.
c. neural pathways become activated more easily as learning occurs.
d. disturbing memories seem to gain in intensity over time.

c; Moderate

141. The hippocampus plays a role in memory consolidation. Therefore it is probably most accurate to say that the hippocampus is more involved in _________ than in ________.
a. retrieval; encoding or storage
b. storage; encoding
c. encoding and storage; retrieval
d. storage and retrieval; encoding

c; Moderate

142. According to your text, one of the key brain regions in explicit memory is a limbic system structure called the ________.
a. hippocampus
b. hypothalamus
c. amygdala
d. thalamus

a; Moderate

143. The hippocampus:
a. helps encode information about spatial relationships
b. helps encode the context surrounding events
c. helps form associations among memories
d. A, B, and C
Answer: d; Difficult

144. Explicit memories are to implicit memories as the ________ is to the _________.
a. hypothalamus; cerebellum
b. amygdala; cerebellum
c. amygdala; hippocampus
d. hippocampus; cerebellum

d; Moderate

145. The amygdala is to the cerebellum as ________ memories are to _________.memories.
a. implicit; emotional
b. emotional; implicit
c. explicit; implicit
d. implicit; explicit

b; Moderate

146. Estelle remembers a night she was mugged and brutally beaten. This memory probably involves her:
a. cerebellum
b. hypothalamus
c. thalamus
d. amygdala

d; Moderate

147. Which brain structure is correctly matched with its role in memory?
a. cerebellum - implicit memory
b. hippocampus - emotional memory
c. amygdala - explicit memory
d. All of these are correctly matched.

a; Moderate

148. In _________ amnesia, memory is lost for events preceding an injury or accident; in __________ amnesia, memory is lost for events following an injury or accident.
a. retrograde; anterograde
b. anterograde; retrograde
c. regressive; progressive
d. retroactive; proactive

a; Moderate

149. Rhonda can't remember anything about the first several minutes immediately following a car crash in which she was injured. Rhonda is experiencing _______ amnesia.
a. retrograde
b. anterograde
c. retroactive
d. proactive

b; Moderate

150. Which of the following defines retrograde amnesia?
a. The inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time
b. The inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory
c. The strengthening of synaptic connections
d. The loss of memory due to the passage of time

a; Easy

151. Which of the following defines anterograde amnesia?
a. The inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time
b. The inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory
c. The strengthening of synaptic connections
d. The loss of memory due to the passage of time

b; Easy

152. Which of the following defines long-term potentiation (LTP)?
a. The inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time
b. The inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory
c. The strengthening of synaptic connections
d. The loss of memory due to the passage of time

c; Easy

153. Omar experienced a dissociative fugue state. He suddenly snapped out of it in front of a pet-supplies display in a Boise, ID discount store; he had no memory whatsoever of his previous life in Greensboro, NC. Omar's amnesia is best described as:
a. proactive
b. anterograde
c. retroactive
d. retrograde

d; Moderate

154. Which of the following is NOT among the neurotransmitters mentioned in your text as important in memory?
a. glutamate
b. serotonin
c. endorphins
d. epinephrine

c; Difficult

155. Which of the following neurotransmitters is correctly paired with a description of its role in memory?
a. serotonin - the most important neurotransmitter in memory
b. epinephrine - released when animals learn
c. glutamate - may increase memory for stressful events
d. None of these is correctly matched.

d; Difficult

156. Based on controlled studies, which of the following popular memory supplements seems to be effective?
a. methylphenidate
b. amphetamines
c. gingko biloba
d. none of these

d; Moderate

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:
157. After material is learned, little is forgotten at first, but then the rate of forgetting speeds up.

F; Moderate

158. Massed practice yields poorer memory than does distributed practice.

T; Easy

159. The primacy and recency effects are components of the spacing effect.

F; Moderate

160. In a list of items, we tend to forget the middle ones rather than the ones at the beginning or end.

T; Easy

161. The most typical member of a category is termed the defining example.

F; Easy

162. The hippocampus is mainly involved in implicit memory.

F; Moderate

163. Popular memory enhancers, such as gingko biloba, are not especially effective.

T; Easy

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS:

...

164. "You'll probably do better on the test if you put more effort into understanding what the chapter's trying to say in the first place," one of your professors admonishes the class. You are reminded of the concept of ___________ encoding.

elaborative; Moderate

165. The slope of the function relating recall to the interval since original learning is _________ sloped.

negatively; Difficult

166. When using a software package's new interface, you keep trying to use the same menus and make the same selections that worked so well in the old version of the interface. You are experiencing _______ interference.

proactive; Moderate

167. A researcher finds that her participants think most readily of a carrot when prompted with the category "vegetable." On this basis, the researcher might argue that a carrot is the ________ vegetable.

prototypical; Moderate

168. Rhoda is thinking of a family reunion last summer. This reminds her that a close friend is attending the same college in which her cousin is enrolled; her thoughts then turn to the reading assignments she has neglected in one of her classes. The process of __________ describes how one memory brings up another in our network of mental categories.

spreading activation; Moderate

169. Explicit memory is to implicit memory as the hippocampus is to the _________.

cerebellum; Moderate

170. Leigh wakes up in a hospital. She remembers careening into a collision, but nothing thereafter. Leigh is experiencing ______ amnesia.

anterograde; Moderate

ESSAY QUESTIONS:

...

171. Define elaborative encoding, state- and context-dependent learning, the serial position effect, and the primacy and recency effects. Describe several ways you might apply your knowledge of these phenomena to improve your retention of material in your college courses.
Difficult

...

172. Describe three of Ebbinghaus' contributions to our understanding of memory. How might you draw on Ebbinghaus' legacy to aid your memory for material in your college courses?
Difficult

...

173. Identify three brain structures important to memory; describe the specific role of each in learning and memory. Identify three neurotransmitters involved in memory.
Difficult

...

SECTION 3
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS:

...

174. "I don't know who told me first, but I heard that Kenny . . . ," Lana begins, sharing gossip on the phone to a friend. Lana is experiencing:
a. anterograde amnesia
b. retrograde amnesia
c. progressive interference
d. a failure of source monitoring

d; Moderate

175. Lydia can't figure out if she dreamed about a person or whether she met him at a recent party. This kind of uncertainty reflects the limitations of
a. source monitoring
b. counterfactual thinking
c. overconfidence
d. heuristic thinking

a; Moderate

176. Orlando swears he remembers the cake and the guests at the party his parents held in honor of his 4th birthday. In reality, Orlando merely remembers the snapshots of the event he viewed in his Mom's photo album much later in his childhood. Orlando's manufactured memory reflects:
a. the representativeness effect
b. functional fixedness
c. a source monitoring error
d. counterfactual thinking

c; Moderate

177. People sometimes remember having experienced events they really only imagined. Which of the following phenomena is most likely responsible for this effect?
a. heuristic thinking
b. overconfidence
c. misinformation
d. source monitoring errors

d; Moderate

178. The ________ effect refers to attitude change that occurs over time as we forget when and where we learned information. It reflects the limitations of _________.
a. misinformation; schematic processing
b. misinformation; source monitoring
c. sleeper; counterfactual thinking
d. sleeper; source monitoring

d; Difficult

179. Which of the following is a definition of functional fixedness?
a. An inability to use an object in new ways
b. A tendency to verify and confirm existing beliefs
c. The inability to remember the source of a memory
d. Attitude change that occurs over time

a; Easy

180. Which of the following is a definition of the confirmation bias?
a. An inability to use an object in new ways
b. A tendency to verify and confirm existing beliefs
c. The inability to remember the source of a memory
d. Attitude change that occurs over time

b; Easy

181. Which of the following is a definition of the sleeper effect?
a. An inability to use an object in new ways
b. A tendency to verify and confirm existing beliefs
c. The inability to remember the source of a memory
d. Attitude change that occurs over time

d; Easy

182. Nigel often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports; he appears to ignore editorials critical of the candidate. Nigel appears prone to:
a. functional fixedness
b. the sleeper effect
c. the confirmation bias
d. the representativeness heuristic

c; Moderate

183. Sandy, a true believer in astrology, reads in her horoscope that today is her lucky day. She gets so excited that she spills coffee all over herself, necessitating a change of clothes. As a result, she is late for work and for a very important meeting, which in turn gets her into serious trouble with her boss. That evening, her brother is taken to the emergency room. On her way to visit him, Sandy finds a dime in the hospital parking lot. What does research on the confirmation bias suggest that Sandy will do?
a. Sandy will renounce astrology as completely wrong because of all the horrible things that happened on her "lucky day."
b. Sandy will begin to question her belief in astrology because of all the horrible things that happened on her "lucky day."
c. Sandy will seize on the dime she found as evidence of astrology's accuracy.
d. Sandy will forget finding the dime because of the all the horrible things that happened to her.

c; Moderate

184. Lou considers himself lucky, while his friend Larry considers himself unlucky. They each take $100 to a casino and play blackjack for 3 hours. When they leave, they have each lost $20. What does research on the confirmation bias suggest will happen?
a. Because of their losses, Larry will maintain his view of himself and Lou will begin to change his view of himself.
b. Both men will reason that they were willing to lose $100 but only lost $20, so it is as if they won $80; so, Lou will maintain his view of himself and Larry will begin to change his.
c. Larry will begin to change his view of himself, reasoning that he was willing to lose $100 but he only lost $20, so it is as if he won $80. Because of his loss, Lou will also begin to change his view of himself.
d. Larry will maintain his view of himself because of his loss. Lou will also maintain his view of himself, reasoning that he was willing to lose $100 but he only lost $20, so it is actually like he won $80.

d; Moderate

185. Which of the following cognitive biases is correctly matched with a problem that illustrates it?
a. Confirmation bias—Duncker's (1945) candle problem
b. Functional fixedness—Wason's (1960) 2-4-6 problem
c. Availability heuristic—determining whether more words begin with 'r' or have 'r' as the third letter
d. None of these are correctly matched.

c; Moderate

186. Making several minor household repairs, Alyssa uses a shoe as a hammer and a butter knife as a screwdriver. Which of the following statements best characterizes Alyssa's problem solving?
a. She is demonstrating schematic processing.
b. She has been released from functional fixedness.
c. She is taking advantage of the availability heuristic.
d. She is using counterfactual thinking.

b; Easy

187. A jeweler is unable to fix a particular mounting in a ring because she can imagine only the conventional uses for her tools. This best demonstrates which of the following?
a. The confirmation bias
b. Functional fixedness
c. Counterfactual thinking
d. The representativeness heuristic

b; Easy

188. Henry's dog, Sparky, has been rolling in the mud. Henry must bathe Sparky before the dog gets mud all over the carpet. However, Henry is unable to find the plug for the tub. Sitting on the counter right beside the tub is a fifty-cent piece. In his frustration, Henry fails to see that the coin could be used as an emergency plug for the tub. What happened to Henry?
a. He displayed heuristic processing.
b. He fell prey to the confirmation bias.
c. He suffered from functional fixedness.
d. His thinking was counterfactual.

c; Easy

189. Which of the following is the most likely mechanism by which misinformation might impair a witness' memory for the actual events in a crime?
a. repression
b. proactive interference
c. anterograde amnesia
d. retroactive interference
Anwer: d; Moderate

...

190. The study of the influence of misinformation on memory is associated with:
a. Bower
b. Miller
c. Sperling
d. Loftus

d; Moderate

191. Which of the following is the best definition of the confirmation bias?
a. The tendency to verify rather than challenge our existing schemas
b. Errors in memory that result from receiving new, conflicting information
c. When stimuli that are bright or colorful grab our attention
d. When we are more certain of our judgments than we should be

a; Easy

192. Which of the following is the best definition of the effect of salience?
a. The tendency to verify rather than challenge our existing schemas
b. Errors in memory that result from receiving new, conflicting information
c. When stimuli that are bright or colorful grab our attention
d. When we are more certain of our judgments than we should be

c; Easy

193. Which of the following is the best definition of the misinformation effect?
a. The tendency to verify rather than challenge our existing schemas
b. Errors in memory that result from receiving new, conflicting information
c. When stimuli that are bright or colorful grab our attention
d. When we are more certain of our judgments than we should be

b; Easy

194. Which of the following is the best definition of overconfidence ?
a. The tendency to verify rather than challenge our existing schemas
b. Errors in memory that result from receiving new, conflicting information
c. When stimuli that are bright or colorful grab our attention
d. When we are more certain of our judgments than we should be

d; Easy

195. Loftus and Palmer (1974) conducted an experiment in which participants estimated the speed of cars that were described as either contacting or smashing into another. To which of the following conclusions regarding eyewitness memory is this study most relevant?
a. The presence of a weapon attracts witnesses' attention, impairing their memory.
b. Eyewitnesses confidence is only weakly related to eyewitness memory.
c. Eyewitness memory can be heavily influenced by leading questions.
d. Child eyewitnesses less suggestible than are adult eyewitnesses.

c; Easy

196. Which of the following alternatives best expresses psychologist Elizabeth Loftus' position on the validity of recovered memories?
a. Recovered memories are often false. They reflect confusion regarding the source of a memory.
b. Recovered memories are often false. They reflect an impairment of implicit memory mechanisms.
c. Recovered memories are often false. They reflect a failure of maintenance rehearsal.
d. Recovered memories are often false. They reflect limitations on working memory capacity.

a; Difficult

197. Your text states that the salience of a gun draws a witness' attention away from the face of the perpetrator, reducing the witness' ability to later identify the perpetrator. This suggests that the effect of the weapon occurred mainly during:
a. encoding
b. consolidation
c. retrieval
d. recall

a; Easy

198. Melinda is computing the correlation coefficient between scores on measure of eyewitness confidence and scores on a measure of eyewitness accuracy. What sort of relationship do you think she'll find?
a. a strong negative relationship
b. a weak relationship if any
c. a strong positive relationship
d. a curvilinear relationship

b; Moderate

199. The 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center. Princess Diana's death. The 1986 Challenger explosion. People's memories for the moment in which they learned of these events are termed ________ memories.
a. snapshot
b. flashbulb
c. photocopy
d. thumbnail

b; Easy

200. Flashbulb memories:
a. typically concern major, unexpected public or personal events
b. are remarkably accurate, even years after the initial event
c. are due to special encoding mechanisms for emotionally charged events
d. are more accurate than memories for more mundane events

a; Moderate

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:
220. Functional fixedness reflects an effect of schemas on problem solving.

T; Easy

221. The misinformation effect may be seen as an example of proactive interference.

F; Moderate

222. False memories can be implanted rather easily, even in adults.

T; Moderate

223. Experts in a given area are less likely to be overconfident in their judgments than are novices.

F; Moderate

224. There is little relationship between an eyewitness' accuracy and his or her confidence.

T; Moderate

225. Flashbulb memories remain accurate long after the original event.

F; Moderate

226. With respect to memory and cognition, availability and accessibility may be seen as very similar.

T; Moderate

227. We are sometimes convinced we remember early childhood events. Sometimes such recollections actually reflect our memory for pictures of the event, rather than our memory for the event itself. These recollections thereby illustrate a failure of __________.

source monitoring; Moderate

228. People seek and remember evidence in support of their existing hypotheses; they ignore or discount contradictory evidence. In other words, people are prone to the ________.

confirmation bias; Moderate

229. An attorney's leading questions may provide information that distorts our memory for an experience. This is an example of the ________ effect.

misinformation; Moderate

230. I was a second-semester freshman. I was eating French fries in the college cafeteria when my friend Liz came up. She was wearing that plaid coat with her yellow skirt, along with that moss-green embroidered bag, the one with a Grecian urn embroidered on it. She told me the shuttle blew up. This is my _________ memory of the 1986 Challenger disaster.

flashbulb; Easy

231. Sometimes we are prone to judge an individual based on our perception of his or her match to the category of people he or she most closely resembles; that is, we fall prey to the __________ heuristic.

representativeness; Moderate

232. The availability heuristic is based on cognitive _______, the extent to which knowledge is activated in memory.

accessibility; Moderate

Implicit memory is often studied through experiments that use ________.

primes/priming

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