The Vitamins

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Vitamin toxicity is more of a concern with which type of vitamins?

fat-soluble vitamins because they are stored more readily in body tissues

When comparing absorption and storage of fat-soluble versus water soluble vitamins in the body:

fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and fatty tissues until the body needs them.

If someone did not meet the recommended intakes for the fat-soluble vitamins one day, you would tell him to:

not be concerned as long as the diet as a whole provides average amounts that approximate the recommended intakes.

You advise your grandmother against using mineral oil as a laxative because:

it may result in loss of the fat-soluble vitamins through excretion.

The statement, "Eat carrots because they are good for your eyes," is correct because:

the vitamin A precursor in carrots becomes activated to form rhodopsin in the eye

A girl has stopped growing in height prematurely because her bones are not going through the remodeling process necessary for growth. This is most likely from a deficiency of which vitamin?

vitamin A

All of the following statements about vitamin A supplements and fortified foods are true except:

although some foods have been fortified with vitamin A, the amounts are not high enough to be a toxicity concern.

You eat frequently at fast-food restaurants. In order to improve the nutritional quality and vitamin A content of a typical fast-food meal you would:

order a salad with cheese and carrots

A young woman on a vegetarian diet has decided to increase her intake of raw bright-colored vegetables and has recently noticed that her skin is turning a bright yellow color. This is most likely a result of over-consumption of:

beta-carotene

Who would be at the greatest risk of developing osteomalacia?

women with low calcium intake and little exposure to the sun who have repeated pregnancies

You have a friend who has very little exposure to the sun and she consumes very few calcium-rich foods. In addition, she has a 2-year-old child and 3-month-old twins. Your friend is at very high risk for developing:

osteomalacia

There has been an increase recently in new cases of rickets in children in the U.S. All of the following might contribute to this except:

increased physical activity in organized sports

Which of the following people would be able to make sufficient amounts of vitamin D without having to eat foods containing the vitamin?

someone who wears light-weight clothing and regularly takes a walk outdoors

Foods fortified with vitamin D are important because:

very few foods have a naturally high vitamin D content and not everyone will be able to obtain adequate exposure to the sun

A person who lives in a city with high air pollution levels may be exposed to increased oxidative damage in the lungs from breathing the contaminated air. Which antioxidant vitamin is needed to protect the cells from damage?

vitamin E

Which of the following would provide the highest amount of vitamin E?

wheat germ oil

You have a friend who eats a lot of highly-processed foods, fast foods, and convenience foods, but does drink fortified milk. You tell your friend that she is at risk for developing _____ deficiency

vitamin E

A person who has taken antibiotics for several weeks because of a severe bacterial infection may develop a deficiency of:

vitamin K

Tobacco use introduces oxidants into the body that can do potential harm to the body tissues. What antioxidant plays an important role in protecting sensitive blood constituents from being damaged, and so is needed in much higher amounts in people exposed to tobacco products and smoke?

vitamin C

You have mixed a container of juice from its concentrate form and placed the open pitcher in the refrigerator to drink from over several days. Which vitamin in the juice is most at risk from the exposure to the air in the refrigerator?

vitamin C

Which of the following preparation or storage techniques for fruits and vegetables will preserve the most vitamins?

stir-frying vegetables in a wok for an oriental dish for dinner

Which of the following groups would not be at risk for developing a thiamin deficiency?

people who consume enough calories from whole foods

A woman who is on a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss may have difficulty maintaining an adequate level of the B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate. What foods being avoided in her diet are most likely to cause this?

grain foods and cereals

An individual has developed heart disease and high blood lipid values and does not want to go on lipid-lowering prescription medications because of their side effects. Which vitamin has been used by physicians in treatment plans as a more natural treatment for heart disease?

niacin

Which of the following would be most likely to develop pellagra?

a person who does not consume meats and eats corn as the dietary staple

As a reaction to the increasing rate of the birth of children with neural tube defects in the U.S., the FDA instituted a new fortification program for all grain and cereal products in conjunction with public health programs. Which vitamin was added to these foods?

folate

All enriched grain products in the U.S. now have folic acid added to them because:

most young women don't have an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables

An elderly woman has had difficulty with digesting her foods because of reduced stomach acid, has had progressively worse nerve pain in her legs, and is now having difficulty walking. Her physician suspects she may have a deficiency of which vitamin?

vitamin B12

Women taking vitamin supplements over several years to help with PMS symptoms developed problems with numbness in their hands and feet and were then unable to walk. Which vitamin in the supplement was most likely to cause the symptoms?

vitamin B6

Which of the following food combinations would ensure adequate intakes of thiamin without too many calories?

small pork chop, green peas, and watermelon

Current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intakes are for us to consume a variety from each category on a daily basis. The two vitamins that rely heavily on our consumption of leafy greens and citrus fruits, as well as other fruits and vegetables, are:

folate and vitamin C

A woman who has been following a vegan diet and now has become pregnant most likely needs _____ supplements

vitamin D and vitamin B12

An elderly person who is having difficulty tolerating dairy products and does not go outdoors may benefit from which of the following vitamin supplements?

vitamin D

Antioxidant nutrients that actively scavenge and quench free radicals in the body include:

vitamin C and vitamin E

When determining the benefits or risks of taking vitamin supplements to reduce risk of chronic diseases, which of the following studies can you rely on to help make your decision?

smokers taking beta-carotene supplements had an increase in lung cancer

People whose diets are rich in vegetables and fruits have low rates of:

cancer

The USP symbol on the label of a vitamin supplement means that:

it contains the ingredients as listed on the label and it will dissolve in the digestive tract

You recommend that your friend not take stress formula vitamin C supplements because:

the amount of vitamin C used during stress can easily be obtained from generous servings of fruits and vegetables

If a person does need to take a vitamin supplement, it is best for them to select a product that:

has a balance of the vitamins you really need with few added ingredients

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