Biology 1, Chapter 11

20 terms by dgrose 

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allele

one of a number of different forms of a gene

codominance

Both alleles contribute to the phenotype

fertilization

fusion of male and female gametes

gamete

specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction

gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

genetics

The scientific study of heredity

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

heterozygous

having two different alleles for a trait

homozygous

having two identical alleles for a trait

hybrid

offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

incomplete dominance

one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele

independent assortment

the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes

multiple alleles

three or more alleles of the same gene

phenotype

physical characteristics of an organism

polygenic traits

trait controlled by two or more genes

probability

a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur

punnett square

diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross

segregation

separation of alleles during gamete formation

trait

a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.

true-breeding

organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate

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