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1a. What Is A Sacrament?

1a. [WSC #93] "A sacrament is an holy ordinance instituted by Christ, wherein, by sensible signs, Christ, and the benefits of the new covenant, are represented, sealed, and applied to believers."

1b. Re-explain what a sacrament is in laymen's terms

1b. • Sacraments are signs and seals of grace which: 1) Represent Christ, 2) Confirm receivers of Christ, 3) To distinguish these receivers from non-receivers, 4) Engage receivers in the service of Christ.

1c. Support this definition from scripture.

1c. • Romans 4:11 (ESV) He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised, so that righteousness would be counted to them as well, • 1 Cor. 10:16-17 (ESV) The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? 17Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread. • 1 Cor. 11:26 (ESV) For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes.

2a. How many sacraments are there?

2a. [WSC #93] "The sacraments of the New Testament are, Baptism, and the Lord's supper."

2b. Defend the number of sacraments with scripture.

2b. • Matthew 26:26-28 (ESV) Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body." 27And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, "Drink of it, all of you, 28for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. • Matthew 28:19-20 (ESV) Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age."

3a. Does anything really happen in a sacrament?

3a. • Yes, faith is strengthened and believers are nourished.

3b. Give scriptural and confessional support for what happens in a sacrament?

3b. • WCF 27.2 "There is in every sacrament, a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified: whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other."- • Matthew 26:26-28 (ESV) "Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body." 27And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, "Drink of it, all of you, 28for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins."

4. Cite at least four New Testament references showing parallels between the Old Testament and New Testament sacraments (quote 2).

• Matthew 26:26-28 (ESV) Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body." 27And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, "Drink of it, all of you, 28for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. • Romans 4:11 (ESV) He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised, so that righteousness would be counted to them as well, • 1 Cor. 10:1-4 (ESV) I want you to know, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, 2and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, 3and all ate the same spiritual food, 4and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ. • Col. 2:11-12 (ESV) In him also you were circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ, 12having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the powerful working of God, who raised him from the dead. • Acts 15:1,5 (ESV) But some men came down from Judea and were teaching the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved." 5 But some believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees rose up and said, "It is necessary to circumcise them and to order them to keep the law of Moses."

5a. What is baptism [WSC #94]?

5a. [WSC #94] " Baptism is a sacrament, wherein the washing with water in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, doth signify and seal our ingrafting into Christ, and partaking of the benefits of the covenant of grace, and our engagement to be the Lord's."

5b. Of what is baptism and sign and seal?

• Engrafting into Christ • Partaking of the benefits of the covenant of grace • Our engagement to be the Lord's

5c. Where are these terms used in Scripture?

5c. • Romans 4:11 (ESV) He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised, so that righteousness would be counted to them as well, • Romans 6:4 (ESV) We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life. • 2 Cor. 1:21-22 (ESV) And it is God who establishes us with you in Christ, and has anointed us, 22and who has also put his seal on us and given us his Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee. • Galatians 3:27 (ESV) For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. • Eph. 1:13-14 (ESV) In him you also, when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit, 14who is the guarantee of our inheritance until we acquire possession of it, to the praise of his glory.

5d. How does the term "engaged to be the LORDS" relate to paedo-baptism?

5d. • Infant baptism is a sign and seal indicating that one has been publicly identified with Christ by his parents and thus is engaged to be the Lord's. One can have confidence that he belongs to Christ if he perseveres in obedience to Christ's commands.

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