how rxns take place and how fast they occur. No info about spontaneity (ie ^G) is given
can be detected, and sometimes isolated from solution. They are necessary for conversion, and often used up as fast as they are produced b/c they are unstable
Describe rxn intermediates?
theorectical, highly unstable compounds that do not actually exist
Describe transition states?
Slowest step in rxn determines the rate of the overall rxn
Which step in a rxn is the rate determining step?
how fast reactants are being used up and products being produced; anything that affects collisions and interactions will affect rate
Describe rxn rate?
1. frequency of reactant collisions
2. orientation of colliding molecules
3. the energy of the rxn
3 Determinants of rate
minimum amount of energy required of reactant molecules during a molecular collision
Activation energy (Ea)
increased concentration, caused by increased pressure, increased temperature, or decreased volume
What causes increased frequency of collisions?
accelerate rate of rxn by lowering activation energy in rate determining step; catalysts are consumed and regenerated in rxn and do not alter the overall energy of rxn
Equation rate constant (k)
1. Temperature (affects both kinetics and thermodynamics)
3. and activation energy
3 determinants of the rate constant
If Ea decreases K increases, and if T increases K increases
How is the rate constant related to activation energy and temperature?
yes, b/c the activation energy has changed
Is the rate constant affected by a catalyst?
increased number of moles, increased pressure, or decreased volume
What are other ways to identify the concentration of particles is increasing?
Does the concentration or changes in concentration affect the rate constant?
concentration is constant
What can be said for the concentration of catalysts in a reaction?
solids and solvents
What two pieces are always left out of ksp and rate law?
yes, catalysts can be a part of the rate law
Can a catalyst be a part of the rate law?
No, they do not affect equilibrium, and thus will not affect Le Chatelier's
Do solids or solvents affect Le Chatelier's principle?