NUTRITION 121 Exam #3

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Micronutrients

Which of the following groups of nutrients is classified as micronutrients?

Vitamins and Minerals

The human body can synthesize which two fat-soluble vitamns?

vitamin D and vitamin K

Which two vitamins pose the greatest risk of toxicity?

vitamin A and vitamin D

Which statement is FALSE regarding fat-soluble vitamins?
A. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in adipose tissue and the liver.
B. Over-consumption of fat-soluble vitamins can lead to toxicity symptoms.
C. Fat-soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis.
D. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with dietary fat.

C. Fat-soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis.

Deficiencies of fat soluble vitamins are sometimes seen in people who:

have a fat malabsorption disorder

Vitamins A,D,E, and K are best absorbed with foods that are rich in:

Fat

Major minerals are those that are required in amounts of at least ________ mg/day.

100

What is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in large amounts in the human body?

vitamin B12

True or False: Water-soluble vitamins are not toxic;they are harmless even when consumed in megadose amounts (by the way do you know what a megadose amount of a vitamin is?)

False

True or False: Even individuals who eat a variety of healthy foods cannot meet their micronutrient needs from food alone and should take a daily supplement.

False

The primary role of the B-complex vitamins is to:

act as coenzymes

Which mineral aids in glucose uptake?

chromium

A vitamin synthesized by bacteria in the intestine is

vitamin K

Which of the following describes the main symptom(s) of beriberi?

muscle wasting and nerve damage

A deficiency of riboflavin is referred to as:

ariboflavinosis

Dietary heme iron is derived from

animal flesh

Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper functioning of:

nerve cells

The chronic overconsumption of avidin found in ________ can result in a biotin deficiency.

raw egg whites

Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. In a situation where there is an insufficient intake of dietary iodide, the thyroid-stimulating hormone promotes enlargement of the thyroid gland. This condition is called

goiter

A deficient intake of ______ has been shown to increase the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect such as spina bifida.

folic acid

Bowed legs, an enlarged and mis-shapen head, and enlarged knee joints in children are all symptoms of

rickets

Individuals in which of the following groups are most likely to develop osteoporosis?

slender, inactive women who smoke

Vitamin D enhances absorption of

both calcium and phosphorus

Fatty fish is a source of

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is called the sunshine vitamin because

exposure to sunlight converts a precursor to vitamin D

Which organ is responsible for the synthesis of vitamin D?

liver, kidneys, and skin

If a healthy individual were to consume too much calcium from the diet, which of the following is MOST likely to occur?

Their gastrointestinal tract would limit the absorption of calcium

In addition to dietary sources (i.e. plant oils, green, leafy vegetables, liver), vitamin K is produced in our:

large intestine

Which of the following foods is high in phosphorus?

soft drinks

Fluorosis is associated with:

consuming to much fluoride

Minerals involved in fluid balance are

sodium and potassium.

Water is known as the universal solvent. This means that:

Most solutes (particles) will dissolve in water.

Food sources of potassium include

milk, kidney beans, orange juice.

Which of the following will likely result if the concentration of electrolytes outside the cell is higher than the intracellular environment?

The cell will shrink and dry up.

Most water is lost daily via the __________.

kidneys

The ability of a muscle to contract and relax is dependent on the flow of ________ in and out of the muscle cell.

calcium

Diets high in sodium are associated with:

high blood pressure

Ann suffers from hypertension, and her physician has advised her to reduce her sodium intake. Which of the following recommendations would you suggest Ann use to low her sodium intake?

Follow the DASH diet.

Avoid processed foods such as canned soups and quick cooking items.
Student Response

Choose fresh fruits and vegetables.

The "command center" of fluid intake is located in the:

hypothalamus

True or False: Processed foods tend to be low in sodium and high in potassium.

False

Which of the following statements about antioxidants is TRUE?

Antioxidants oxidize free radicals.

Vitamin E function as a(n)

antioxidant

From what source does our body obtain the majority of its antioxidants?

from the diet

Which of the following diseases has been linked to free radical damage?

heart disease, cancer, diabetes

Good food sourcces of Vitamin E include

nuts

Which water-soluble vitamin can regenerate vitamin E after it has been oxidized?

vitamin C

The doctor has recently told Julie that she is anemic. Julie should consume ________ with her iron supplement to increase its absorption.

a glass of orange juice

Which of the following is NOT a function of carotenoids?

increase cellular metabolic rate

The most critical role that vitamin A plays in the human body is:

maintaining healthy vision.

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the mineral selenium?

-Selenium is involved in the maintenance of basal metabolism and body temperature.

-Selenium is needed in minute amounts by the human body.

-Selenium is a component of the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase enzyme system.

-Selenium is present only in foods of animal origin.

Selenium is present only in foods of animal origin.

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