A network of connecting vessels that collects fluids between cells.
The fluid found inside of the lymphatic vessels. Pushed through vessels by skeletal muscles.
Interstitial (tissue) fluid
Fluid found between tissue cells that is absorbed by lymph capillaries to become lymph.
The indented side of a lymph node. The entrance of the renal sinus that contains the renal artery, renal vein, and ureter.
Digest unwanted pathogens in the lymph as it sits in the node.
Start an immune respone against the pathogen.
Lymphatic capillary--lymphatic vessel--lymph node--lymphatic vessel--lymphatic trunk--collecting duct--subclavian vein.
Very small, glandular structures, they are located along larger lympatic vessels
About four or five are associated with each node.
Lymphatic vessels that carry lymph out of a node.
A soft bilobed organ located just above the heart in the mediastinum, has the same functions as a lymph node but also produces lymphocytes and the hormone thyosin.
The largest lymphatic organ located in the ULQ of the abdominal cavity , filled with blood, macrophages and lymphocytes. It filters blood and removes worn out red blood cells.
Surgical removal of the spleen
The presence of a pathogen in or on the body.
A disease causing agent such as a bacterium, virus, toxin, fungus, or protozoan.
The body's mechanisms to protect itself against pathogens
Protects bodies against pathogens include species resistance, mechanical and chemical barriers, phagocytosis, fever, inflamation.
A species typically gets only diseases that are unique to that species.
The covering of the body and the lining of the tubes of the body ( mucous membranes) provide barriers against pathogens.
Chemicals and enzymes in body fluids provide barriers that destroy pathogens. ex. Lysozymes and interferon
In tears and destroy pathogens on the surface of the eye.
In blood and blocks viruses from infecting cells.
The process by which WBCs defend the body against infection by engulfing invading pathogens.
An elevated body temperature, patients experiencing a fever are said to be febrile.
Four signs included are redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
They protect the body against very specific pathogens, also called immunities.
Foreign substances in the body to small to start an immune response by themselves they join to proteins in the blood.
Major proteins involved in specific defenses along with antibodies.
Proteins that assist in immune response regulation; produced by the cells of the lymphatic system .
Assist in regulation of the immune response by increasing B cell production and stimulating red bone marrow; produced by lymphocytes and macrophages.
A major type of lymphocyte, they respond to antigens by becoming plasma cells which then make antibodies against the specific antigen.
They bind to antigens on cells and attack them directly, they then secrete lymphokines which increases T-cell production and directly kill cells that have antigens.
Natural killer (NK) cells
Another type of lymphocyte, they primarily target cancer cells but also protect the body against many types of pathogens.
Antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
An antibody found in secretions of the body such as breast milk, sweat, tears, saliva, and mucus. Prevents pathogens from entering the body.
This antibody is found on the cell membranes of B cells.
This antibody is found wherever IgA is located, it is involved in triggering allergic reactions.
This antibody primarily recognizes bacteria, viruses, and toxins, it can also activate complements.
This antibody is very large and primarily binds to antigens on food, bacteria, or imcompatible blood cells also activates complements.
Naturally acquired active immunity
This develops by being naturally exposed to an antigen and subsequently making antibodies and memory cells against the antigen. Long lasting.
Artificially acquired active immunity
This develops by being injected with a pathogen and then subsequently making antibodies and memory cells against the pathogen. Long lasting.
Naturally acquired passive immunity
A person is given this immunity through his mother, during breast feeding a mother passes antibodies to her baby through breast milk. Also through the placenta--short lived.
Artificially acquired passive immunity
A person is given this immunity when she is injected with antibodies.
A factor that is known to cause the formation of cancer.
Removal of tissue for examination.
Very early cancer, cancer cells are located in a few cell layers, very treatable.
Cancer cells have spread to deeper cell layers, or some may have spread to surrounding tissue, very treatable.
Cancer cells have spread to surrounding tissues but are considered contained in the primary cancer site.
Cancer cells have spread beyond the primary cancer site to nearby areas.
Cancer cells have spread to other organs of the body.
Cancer cells have reappeared after treatment.
Substances that trigger allergic responses.
Blood vessels dilate so quickly that blood pressure drops too quickly for organs to adjust.
Over the counter medications that effectively treat allergies.
Causes vasoconstriction, which increases blood pressure.
Where the body begins to attack its own antigens. ex. MS, rheumatoid arthritis.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
The development of severe signs and symptoms caused by HIV
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
A condition in which a person feels severe tiredness that cannot be relieved by rest and is not related to other illness.
The blockage of lymphatic vessels.
Highly contagious viral infection spread through the saliva of the infected person .
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
An autoimmune disorder that affects a few or sometimes many organ systems of the body.