the process of converting archived info into molecules that actually do things in the cell
knockout, null, loss of function alleles
alleles that do not function
one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis
each gene contains the information needed to make an enzyme
synthesizing enzymes in a series of steps
carry information from DNA to the site of protein synthesis
polymerizes reibonucleotides into strands of RNA
DNA codes for RNA, which codes for proteins
the process of copying hereditary info in DNA to RNA
the process of using the info in nucleic acids to synthesize proteins
a enzyme of retro viruses (RNA viruses) that can synthesize double-stranded DNA from a single-stranded RNA template
the rules that specify the relationship between a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA and the sequence of amino acids in a protein
a three base code
sequences of codons
AUG, signals protein synthesis should begin
UAA, UAG, UGA, signals protein synthesis is complete
a single base change
any permanent change in an organism's DNA
missense mutations, or replacement mutations
a point mutation that causes a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein
a point mutation that does not change the amino acid sequence of the gene product
a change in the number of each type of chromosome present
the addition or deletion of a chromosome
segments of a chromosome may become flipped and rejoin
chromosomes become attached to a different chromosome
the complete set of chromosomes in a cell
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