What (2) things characterize personality?
Consistency & Distinctiveness
What is Consistency?
stability in behavior overtime across situations
What is Distinctiveness?
behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation
What is the BIG 5 [Personality Traits]?
O - openness
C - conscientousness
E - extraversion
A - agreeableness
N - neuroticism
What are the 4 theories of Personality?
Freud & Jung - Psychodynamic Theories
Skinner, Bandure - Behavioral Perspectives
Humanistic Perspectives - Hans
Biological - Eysenck
Basics of Freud's psychoanalytic theory
- Childhood memories and underlying issues.
- Behavior governed by the UNCONSCIOUS
Freud's (3) Personality Groups
Id, Ego, Super-ego
What is the "Id" do?
(you want something, just b/c)
What's the Ego do?
(Weighs want & need)
What's the Super-Ego do?
(Weighs right & wrong)
Freud believed that the conscious mind is used very little.
are unconscious reactions that protect you from anxiety and guilt.
ex: Denial, Repression
Freud's Theory of Development says..
development revolves around sexual arousal periods
Researchers say personality is..
Carl Rogers Theory of Personality says...
Based on Humanism: which emphasizes the unique qualities of humans (freedom/personal growth)
1. People can rise above
2. Are largely CONSCIOUS
3. are NOT governed by determinism
General Defense Mechanisms pg. 383
Carl Jung Theory says..
emphasized the unconscious & that it consists of 2 layers.
Personal Unconscious: same as Freud's
Collective Unconscious: memory traces from ancestry
Adler's Theory of Personality says...
Striving for superiority, to be better than every one else motivates us.
he believe Freud though TOO much about sex.
Agreed w/ Freud's "childhood memories"
Cultural Differences in Personality
Independent v. Dependant
What are archetypes?
ancestral meanings of universal meaning.
ex: art, religion and dreams
(2) Childhood Dev. 1st movements?
Cephalocaudal Trend: Head to feet (turn whole body)
Proximodistal Trend: Center to outward
Childhood Emotional Development
Attatchment: close bonds of youth and caregiver
What're the (3) Theories of Attatchment?
Culture & Personality says..
O.C.E.A.N remains the same across cultures
- traits are universal
Independent Cultures are?
Western, they focus on themselves.
Interdependent Cultures are?
Eastern, they focus on connectedness w/ others
Erikson: (3) Stage Theories of Personality Development
1. Process through stages in order
2. " " Related to age (6 yrs. old, DO THIS)
3. Major discontinuities in development
Piaget's Theory says..
That environment and cognition alter knowledge.
(Cognitive Development is based on wrong answers on the IQ tests.)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory says..
cognitive development in kids occur through social interactions w. teachers, parents, and older kids.
Kohlberg's Stage Theory says..
Punishment: naive reward, good girl!
Authority: Social contact, your conscious
3levels: Pre-conventional, Conventional, and Post-conventional
Who introduced Incongruence?
Carl Rogers. It means a gap between one's self concept and one's actual experience