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Bosporus

strait, separated from the Dardanelles strait by the Sea of Marmara, that connects the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, was under the control of the Byzantines until it's conquering by the Ottomans

Dardanelles

strait, separated from the Dardanelles strait by the Sea of Marmara, that connects the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, was under the control of the Byzantines until it's conquering by the Ottomans

Sea of Marmara

When the Mongols destroyed the Sejuks and took control over most of Iran one pocket of resistance by the Turks was seen in the town of Bursa, across the Marmara Sea, separates the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits

Janissaries

"new soldier", elite military units/guards of the Ottoman Empire, Christian boys collected as "blood tax" to serve as slaves in the Sultan's service, they were converted to Islam and trained in extremely harsh conditions to be foot soldiers or administrators, they weren't allowed to have a family -> only loyalty to the Sultan

Devshirme

'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries

Praetorianism

the Janissaries wielded significant power at the court since they controlled much of the weaponry of the empire, in a pattern called praetorianism (indicating a situation of political breakdown where no one plays by the rules) many made claims to the throne and some rose to become the Sultan's viziers

Battle of Kosovo 1389

the Ottomans began to master the technology of firearms, with their new forces they defeated the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, both commanders were killed in battle

Mehmed II

under his leadership the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire and conquered Constantinople with 80,000 troops, great patron of the arts

May 29, 1453

the Ottomans breached the walls of Constantinople and captured the city on this date, the city became the Ottoman capital and was renamed Istanbul

Selim I

from 1514 to 1517 he took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Arabia, the Ottomans were now in control of several of Islam's holy cities including Jerusalem, Makkah (Mecca) and Madinah (Medina), he declared himself caliph

Pashas

government appointed officials who collected taxes, maintained law and order and were directly responsible to the Sultan's court, specially gifted Janissaries were selected to be pashas in a selective process based on merit

Suleyman I ("The Magnificent")

Mehmet's great-grandson who assumed the throne in 1520, codified the laws and imperial proclamations that were enforced in the empire, his reign was the apogee of the Ottoman Empire, expanded the empire to the west into Vienna, he was fueled by the desire to spread the Muslim faith and to appease the Janissaries with plunder from military campaigns, foolishly allied with French -> gave French capitulations regarding trade

Capitulations

from Latin "capitula" meaning chapters; granting of special rights and privileges to Europeans, usually including extraterritoriality (the right to be tried in the courts of one's country), Ottoman government first capitulated to French demands and then those of other Europeans -> sign of European strength and Ottoman weakness

Battle of Lepanto 1579

the Ottomans were successfully advancing into the western Mediterranean until the Papal states joined forces with Venice and Spain to launch a naval attack that destroyed a large Ottoman fleet at Lepanto in 1571

Siege of Vienna 1683

the Turks surged into Vienna and eventually Vienna, all Europeans trembled until they were pushed back by Polish cavalry

Gunpowder Empire

the Ottoman Empire was largely defined by its mastery of the technology of firearms (European technology)

Sultan

supreme authority in both a military and political sense, hereditary, ultimate ownership of all land resided with the sultan, as the empire expanded rule became increasingly imperial and the sultan grew increasingly isolated from his people

Harem

"sacred place", the private domain of the sultan where him and his wife resided

Grand Vizier

a chief minister who carried the main burdens of the state, led the council, the sultan sat behind a screen overhearing the council and relaying his wishes to the grand vizier

Topkapi Palace

"iron gate", located in Istanbul, center of the Sultan's power, built in the 15th century by Mehmed II, served the administrative purpose of being the private residence of the Sultan and his family

Dhimmi

the Christian and Jewish Ottoman population, accorded protection as "people of the book"

Millet

in Ottoman times an ethnic community; in modern Turkish a nation, system used to contain and appease dhimmi population, different regions were ruled with the their religious leaders, gave them autonomy within their regions, however, all people were required to obey the laws of their people and be judged in their law courts (Islamic)

Sinan

greatest of all Ottoman architects, built 81 mosques including the Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul

Suleymaniye Mosque

glorious mosque that was described by Westerners as incomparable to any Western piece of architecture

Suleyman II ("the Drunkard")

Suleyman's concubine Hurren convinced him that his eldest son was plotting to take the throne, Sulayman killed his son leading the way for Hurren's son, Suleyman the drunkard was appointed Sultan

Problem of Succession

the position of the Sultan was hereditary and fratricide was practiced to eliminate claimants to the throne (after he was appointed Sultan the man would usually order all his brothers to be killed) -> Mehmett III killed 19 of his brothers and 6 pregnant girl's from his fathers harem -> people were outraged which led to all princes being confined to a "golden age" where they were prisoners of life who lived in absolute luxury

Economic Decline

European merchants discovered America and pioneered routes to the Orient around Africa which led the great trading empires of England and Holland to bypass the land-based routes of the Middle East -> eventually went bankrupt from borrowing money from Europeans, the Ottoman Empire was based on silver, the discovery of America flooded the European markets with a surplus of cheap silver

The Sick Man of Europe

Ottomans suffered a series of military defeats including some by the hands of the Russians -> sunk so low that by 1853 the Russian tsar called it the "sick man of Europe"

Treaty of Karlowitz 1699

beaten by the Austrian hasburgs the Ottomans signed the Treaty of Karlowitz surrending Slavonia, Transylvania and a large section of Hungary to the hasburgs

Slim III and the "New Army"

he found the Janissaries lacking and tried to replace them with a "New Army" of infantry and artillery organized in a European fashion -> janissaries revolted and destroyed the "New Army"

Mahmut III and the abolition of the Janissaries 1826

fueled by a decline in the Janissaries fighting abilities he sent a handful to receive Western training -> overly confident the Janissaries ignored the request, anticipating this reaction Mahmut ordered his artillery units to open fire on the Janissaries barracks and by 1826 he had abolished the Janissaries

The Tanzimat 1839

reforms of the Turkish government -> reorganized the army, updated equipment, troops reported to Istanbul rather than provincial governors, introduced European family, commercial, and maritime law (non-Muslims had equal status with Muslims)

The Young Ottomans

a group of Istanbul-based intellectuals who opposed reforms, proposed the establishment of a parliament as a way of reuniting the empire and reestablishing Muslim law

Sultan Abdul Aziz and the Constitution of 1876

attempted to curry British favor by announcing an Ottoman constitution -> conservative theology students rioted

Abdul Hamid II

later in 1876 he assumed throne and asserted his claim to the caliphate of all Islam

Ottoman Public Debt Authority

a new government department that was staffed and controlled by the European creditors, in 1881 after the Ottoman Empire went bankrupt the Sultan turned over his treasury to it in order to continue borrowing -> Ottomans humiliated, they had been taught that Europeans were inferior but this gave them equal rights

The Young Turks

in 1889 students formed the Ottoman Union Society and planned a coup but it was cut short when one of the plotters drunkenly revealed the plot to a senior official -> to escape arrest many fled to Paris and formed the Committee of Union and Progress known as the Young Turks

The Young Turk Revolution of 1908

Young Turks staged an armed rebellion that called for a restoration of the Constitution of 1906, to maintain peace Sultan's agreed to demands which led to the Young Turks establishing themselves as a guardian council to overse the actions of the Sultan

Mehmet V

when a group called the Muhammadan Union marched on parliament to demand the Constitution be aborted and the Christians return to dhimmi status, suspecting that the Sultan instigated the rebellion the parliament replaced Abdul Hamid with his brother Mehmet V and the CUP regained power

World War I 1914-1918

Ottomans allied with Germany -> Ottomans suffered against British

Mustafa Kemal

every general but one suffered military defeats in WWI -> Mustafa Kemal prevented British and Anzac troops from seizing the Gallipoli peninsula

Gallipoli

Mustafa Kemal prevented British and Anzac troops from seizing the Gallipoli peninsula

Sir Henry McCahon

encouraged Arabs to free themselves from Ottoman rule

Sharif Hussein of Mecca

Sir Henry McMahon promised him an Arab kingdom

T.E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia)

delivered the offer (to the Sharif Hussein) and rose with the Arabs loyal to the Sharif in their revolt of 1916

Arab Revolt of 1916

Arab irregulars took out Ottoman forces in northern Arabia, Palestine, and Syria

British Conquest of Palestine 1917

Arab Revolt of 1916 paved the way for the British conquest of Palestine in 1917

Turkish Armistice, October 31, 1918

Ottomans withdrew 11 days before the Armistice went into effect on the Western Front -> Turkish armistice demanded the victors had the right to occupy any part of the empire if they considered their security to be under threat, forced CUP leadership to flee in a German submarine marking the end of five hundred years of Ottoman history

Armenian Genocide

at the start of WWI Russian troops enlisted the aid of Russia's Christian coreligionists, the Armenians, in 1894-1896 irregular local forces massacred thousands of Armenians -> in 1915 under CUP orders the Ottoman army rounded up Armenians and marched them at gunpoint into the Syrian desert with little food or water, many were murdered along the way, as many as 1.5 million people between 1914 and 1932 -> Turkish historians still claim the 1915 march was a precautionary move and the genocide was unintended

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