*Simple cell division where a single cell or group of cells each duplicate its' genetic material and splits into two daughter cells.
*Offspring get genetic material from one parent.
*Single cells, ex. paramecium.
*Sometimes multicellular organisms at certain times.
*Two parents are involved in the production of offspring.
*Genetic material from each parent combine, offspring are genetically different.
*Union of gametes (sex cells) known as the egg and sperm.
*Some singlecellular organisms can produce sexually.
In eukaryotic cells, genes are stored inside the nucleus in long fibers which are made up of DNA and protein molecules.
Condensed chromatin fibers that are visible and are made in compact structures. (Humans have 46)
Identical copies of a chromosome.
Region where two chromosomes are joined together.
Orderly sequence of events that eukaryotic cells that divide must go through.
Stage during which a cell carries out its metabolic processes and performs its' functions. G1, S, G2 Phases.
Mitonic Phase (M Phase)
Stage of cell cycle where cells divide. Sister chromatids separate and two new nuclei form.
Forms daughter cells. Growth, repair. healing.
Cytoplasm divides, forming two new cells.
Genetic material duplicates.
Cell prepares to divide.
*Chromosomes become visible; nuclear envelope breaks down.
*Chromosomes are joined at centromere.
*Chromosomes gather and line up at metaphase plate (center).
*Process of prophase is reversed.
*Cell divides in two.
*Nuclear envelope forms.
*Cleavage furrow if animal cell, cell plate if plant cell.
Disk containing cell wall material.
*Abnormal mass of essentially normal cells.
*Some health problems, can be removed by surgery.
*Cells remain at original site in body.
*Masses of cells that result from reproduction of cancer cells.
*High ability to spread.
*Displaces normal tissue.
*Can spread to surrounding tissues.
*Cells can split off and travel to form new tumors.
*No "cure", but there are remedies.
Out of control cell reproduction.
Disease caused by severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle -> uncontrolled cell -> death.
Spread of cancer cells beyond original site.
Type of cell division that produces four cells, each with one half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. How able to produce eggs or sperm.
46 chromosomes (each chromosome has a "twin" that resembles its' size and shape)
2 pairs of each matching pair. 23 pairs.
Determine a person's gender.
A single cell within an organism.
Multiple cells within an organism.
Sex cells with only one set of chromosomes.
Gametes that combine and form a zygote.
Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. (Between Prophase I of Meiosis)
New combination of genetic information from different parents.
Study of heredity.
Variation of a particular character.
Explains how offspring inherit traits from both parents.
*States that parents pass on to their offspring separate and distinct factors (genes) that are responsible for inherited traits.
*Hertiable factors retain identity generation after generation.
Fertilizing opposite plants.
Offspring of two true-bred parents.
Pairing in which two parent plants differ in only one character.
Diagram that shows all possible outcomes of a genetic cross.
Genetic makeup, or combo of alleles.
3 PP: 0 Pp: 1 pp
3 purple: 1 white
Crossing organisms differing in two characteristics.
Where neither crossed allele is dominant, and they create an interzygote that is intermediate bewteen the phenotypes of the two homozygotes.
A heterozygote that expresses both traits.
When two or more genes affect a single character.
Gene Locus (Loci)
Location where alleles of a gene reside on a homologous chromosome.
Tendency for the alleles on one chromosome to be inherited together.
Any gene that is located on a sex chromosome.