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Golgi apparatus

The delivery sustem of eukaryotic cells called the _____ can collect, package, modify, and transport molecules.

extracellular matrix

Animal cells excrete glycoproteins outside of teh plasma membrane to produce an ______ which is directly linked to the cytoskeleton

rough endoplasmic reticulum

Some ribosomes are embedded into

large molecular aggregates of protein and RNA

Ribosomes are

allow bacteria to pass through unaffected

Lysosomes are vesicles bounded by membranes that contain oxidative enzymes. Their functions include all of the following except they

DNA

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the other organelles besides the nucleus that contain

a lipid bilayer

Centrioles are organelles which have all of the following except

ribosome assembly

The functions of the cytoskeleton include all of the following except

mitochondria

All of the following are considered to be part of the endomembrane system except

you would be stuck in the golgi

If you were a protein destined to reach the plasma membrane and you were making your way through the golgi when suddenly golgi trafficking was blocked at the trans face , what would happen to you?

phospholipids

The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called

fluid

While water continually orients phospholipides into a lipid bilayer, it does not fix the lipids permanently into position. Thus, the bilayer is considered to be _____ in natu

carrier

Both active transport and facilitated transport utilize specific _____ proteins embedded in the cell membrane

are hydrophobic

Membrane proteins are not very soluble in water, because they prossess long stretches of non-polar amino acids that

isotonic

If a cell has the same concentration of dissolved molecules as of its outside environment, the cells condition is called as being

horomones

What protein class is not found as a membrane protein?

conformation

The actual transport of protons by the proton pump is mediated by a transmembrane protein which undergoes a change in its _____

phagocytosis

The process often thought of a "cell eating" is

3 sodium ions leave and 2 potassium ions enter

In a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used up withe the result that

the cell membrane was composed of a phospholipid bilayer with globular proteins actually inserted into the bilayer

The fluid mosaic model proposed by singer and nicolson in 1972 included that

the carrier molecule must be specific to the molecule that is transported. the direction of movement is always with the concentration gradient, never against the gradient

Facilitated diffusion is an important method for cells in obtaining necessary molecules and removing other ones. Requirements for facilitated diffusion include what?

water moves into the cell

As a scientist you perform an experiment in which you create an artificial cell with a selectively permeable membrane through which only water can pass. You put a 5M solution of glucose into the cell and you place that into a beaker of water. What observations do you expect to see?

freeze-fracture allows a cell to be cleaved in between the lipid bilayer, splitting the plasma membrane into two layers

How can freeze-fracture be used to determine the orientation of a protein in a membrane?

the capacity to do work

Energy is defined as

entropy

Free energy is the amount of energy available for the cell to carry out its many chemical processes. It is the difference between the internal energy or enthalpy and ____ or disorder

activation energy

The process fo influencing the chemical bonds in a way that lowers the ___ needed to speed up a chimical reaction is call catalysis

allosteric

Certain key molecules can regulate biochemical pathways by controlling the rates fo enzymatic reactions by binding at ____ sites

endergonic

A chemical reaction which requires energy is called an ____reaction

competitive inhibitor

A molecule that closely resembles the shape fo a substrate for an enzyme might serve as a

electrons

Oxidation and reduction reactions are chemical processes that result in a gain or loss in

is shaped to fit a certain substrate molecule

Enzymes are very specific in their choices of substrates because each different enzyme has an active site that

7.3 Kcal of energy

Under standard conditions, ATP can release fro every molecule converted to ADP

feedback inhibition

The regulation of simple biochemical pathways often involves the end-product binding to the allosteric site of the first enzyme in the sequence. This mode of regulation is called

energy cannot be created or destroyed, just changed from one form to another

The first law of thermodynamics simply states that

decreased enzyme activity

The temperature is raised slightly above the optimum for a specific enzyme. What would you expect to observe as a result of the change in temperature?

the reaction would proceed spontaneously

If the delta G of a reaction was -31.45 kJ, you would know that

S is greater than T

In the hypothetical biochemical pathway, P is greater than Q + R is greater than S is greater than T, which step is likely to have evolved first?

respiration

Simple molecules are further broken down in cells in a process called ____, during which energy stored in their chemical bonds is used to power the production f ATP

pyruvate

In glycolysis, a major portion of the energy remains in the final product, which is called ____

decaarboxylation

For further derivation of energy, aerobic cells must converty pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by stripping off a CO2 molecule. This process is known as ____

glycolysis

The first stage of cellular respiration, _____, occurs with or without oxygen present

a difference in H+ concentration on the two sides of the mitochondrial membrane

Chemiosmotic generation fo ATP is driven by

two turns

A single glucose molecule can drive the krebs cycle

H2O

The oxygen utilized in cellular respiration finally show up as

proton pumps

The electron transport chain, a series of membrane-associated electron carriers, loses most of the energy by driving several transmembrane

matrix of the mitochondria

The enzymes of the krebs cycle are located in the

oxygen

During aerobic respiration the final acceptor of the hydrogen atoms is

glycolysis to pyruvate to acetyl CoA to krebs cycle to electron transport chain

What is the correct sequence concerning glucose catabolism

NAD+

Oxidized form of the most common electron carrier, needed in both glycolysis and krebs cycle

to generate and maintain the protein gradient essential for ATP production

Why are the components of the electron transport chain embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane rather than floating freely in the cytoplasm of the mitochondrial matrix?

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