The delivery sustem of eukaryotic cells called the _____ can collect, package, modify, and transport molecules.
Animal cells excrete glycoproteins outside of teh plasma membrane to produce an ______ which is directly linked to the cytoskeleton
allow bacteria to pass through unaffected
Lysosomes are vesicles bounded by membranes that contain oxidative enzymes. Their functions include all of the following except they
you would be stuck in the golgi
If you were a protein destined to reach the plasma membrane and you were making your way through the golgi when suddenly golgi trafficking was blocked at the trans face , what would happen to you?
The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called
While water continually orients phospholipides into a lipid bilayer, it does not fix the lipids permanently into position. Thus, the bilayer is considered to be _____ in natu
Both active transport and facilitated transport utilize specific _____ proteins embedded in the cell membrane
Membrane proteins are not very soluble in water, because they prossess long stretches of non-polar amino acids that
If a cell has the same concentration of dissolved molecules as of its outside environment, the cells condition is called as being
The actual transport of protons by the proton pump is mediated by a transmembrane protein which undergoes a change in its _____
3 sodium ions leave and 2 potassium ions enter
In a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used up withe the result that
the cell membrane was composed of a phospholipid bilayer with globular proteins actually inserted into the bilayer
The fluid mosaic model proposed by singer and nicolson in 1972 included that
the carrier molecule must be specific to the molecule that is transported. the direction of movement is always with the concentration gradient, never against the gradient
Facilitated diffusion is an important method for cells in obtaining necessary molecules and removing other ones. Requirements for facilitated diffusion include what?
water moves into the cell
As a scientist you perform an experiment in which you create an artificial cell with a selectively permeable membrane through which only water can pass. You put a 5M solution of glucose into the cell and you place that into a beaker of water. What observations do you expect to see?
freeze-fracture allows a cell to be cleaved in between the lipid bilayer, splitting the plasma membrane into two layers
How can freeze-fracture be used to determine the orientation of a protein in a membrane?
Free energy is the amount of energy available for the cell to carry out its many chemical processes. It is the difference between the internal energy or enthalpy and ____ or disorder
The process fo influencing the chemical bonds in a way that lowers the ___ needed to speed up a chimical reaction is call catalysis
Certain key molecules can regulate biochemical pathways by controlling the rates fo enzymatic reactions by binding at ____ sites
A molecule that closely resembles the shape fo a substrate for an enzyme might serve as a
is shaped to fit a certain substrate molecule
Enzymes are very specific in their choices of substrates because each different enzyme has an active site that
The regulation of simple biochemical pathways often involves the end-product binding to the allosteric site of the first enzyme in the sequence. This mode of regulation is called
energy cannot be created or destroyed, just changed from one form to another
The first law of thermodynamics simply states that
decreased enzyme activity
The temperature is raised slightly above the optimum for a specific enzyme. What would you expect to observe as a result of the change in temperature?
the reaction would proceed spontaneously
If the delta G of a reaction was -31.45 kJ, you would know that
S is greater than T
In the hypothetical biochemical pathway, P is greater than Q + R is greater than S is greater than T, which step is likely to have evolved first?
Simple molecules are further broken down in cells in a process called ____, during which energy stored in their chemical bonds is used to power the production f ATP
In glycolysis, a major portion of the energy remains in the final product, which is called ____
For further derivation of energy, aerobic cells must converty pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by stripping off a CO2 molecule. This process is known as ____
a difference in H+ concentration on the two sides of the mitochondrial membrane
Chemiosmotic generation fo ATP is driven by
The electron transport chain, a series of membrane-associated electron carriers, loses most of the energy by driving several transmembrane
glycolysis to pyruvate to acetyl CoA to krebs cycle to electron transport chain
What is the correct sequence concerning glucose catabolism