What is the most common cause of infectious arthritis in late adolescence, adults, and women?
- S. aureus (non-gonococcal)
List 2 common causes of infectious arthritis in children < 2 years of age.
List 3 viruses that can cause infectious arthritis.
List the most common bones affected by septic arthritis in infants/young children and older children/adults
infants and young children: hip
older children and adults: knee
List 3 predisposing factors to septic arthritis.
Septic arthritis s/s (3)
Describe the WBC, protein, and glucose level in joint aspiration for septic arthritis.
Microscopic examination shows ulceration of the synovial lining covered by acute inflammatory fibrinous exudate containinig numerous neutrophils
What 2 factors are involved in cartilage destruction in septic arthritis?
enzymes released by disintegrating neutrophils
How is rheumatoid arthritis similar to untreated septic arthritis?
pannus formation with fibrous ankylosing of the joint
List 3/5 complications of septic arthritis.
- secondary osteoarthritis is a long-term complication
List 2 causes of tuberculous arthritis.
What bacteria causes Lyme arthritis?
Microscopy shows thickening of the synovial lining with chronic papillary synovitis with synoviocyte hyperplasia, fibrin deposition, onion-skin thickening of the arterial walls and mononuclear cell infiltrates. Silver stains (may) reveal small number of microorganisms in the vicinity of blood vessels.
List 3 causative agents of viral arthritis.
What gene is associated with seronegative spondyloarthropathies?
List the 4 main groups of seronegative spondyloarthropathies.
List 3 extraskeletal manifestations of Reiter syndrome.
List 2 extraskeletal manifestations of psoriatic arthritis.
List 2 extraskeletal manifestations of enteropathy associated arthritis.
inflammatory bowel disease
List 2 extraskeletal manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis.
What is the most common seronegative spondyloarthropathy?
Describe 3 features of seronegative spondyloarthropathy pathology.
What gene is associated with rheumatoid arthritis?
What is the most common malignant tumor of the bone?
List 3 possible predisposing disorders for bone tumors.
What are the 2 most common tumors of the epiphysis?
giant cell tumor
What 2 malignant tumors arise in the metaphysis?
List 2 malignant tumors that arise in the diaphysis.
Malignant bone tumors s/s (3)
Do benign or malignant bone tumors present with "scalloped borders?"
benign bone tumors
- seen in younger patients
Is bone formation by bone tumors associated with high or low grade tumors?
Osteoid osteoma general age and gender
- predilection for appendicular skeleton
Osteoid osteoma classical presentation
nocturnal pain alleviated by aspirin
- osteoid is unmineralized bone
Is "rimming" of osteoid by osteoblasts a sign of benign or malignant bone tumors?
- malignancy assorted with tumor cell rimming
What disorder is associated with osteoma?
- must look for skin manifestations and colonic polyps
What is the most common bone sarcoma?
- bimodal age distribution
What are 2 causes of osteosarcoma in the elderly?
- more common in children and young adults
What bones are affected in elderly patients with osteosarcoma?
List 2 gene mutations that cause hereditary osteosarcoma. List 3 gene mutations that cause sporadic osteosarcoma.
How does the anatomic location of osteosarcoma determine its grade?
What type of cartilage is only found in tumors?
What part of the bone is associated with osteochondroma?
What 2 types of cartilage are associated with enchondroma?
List 2 diseases associated with multiple endochondromas. Which is associated with extraskeletal malignancy?
What malignant condition is associated with endochondroma?
List 3 common sites of chondrosarcoma.
Do low grade chondrosarcomas metastasize?
Giant cell tumor of the bone age range
List 2 translocations associated with Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
Giant cell tumor of the bone location
List 3/6 common primary sites for metastatic tumors to the bone.
What type of cancer should be suspected if a mass is found in the diaphysis of an adult?
metastatic cancer from a distance source