biol 224 lab 2
| broken down food consistancy of smoothie|
where is first place it can be called this?
when excreted from stomach into duodenum
|process of chemically breaking down food||hydrolysis|
| 2 main types of enzymes that break down carb?|
| salivary amylase|
| another name for swallowing?|
buccal / pharyngeal-esophageal
|2 types of mvmt and what is the diff?|| peristaltic movement- move foodstuff by contracting behind and relaxing in front|
segmental movement-diff parts contract together, which mixes the chyme as well as propelling it forward
| acid found in stomach? released by?|
other cell in stomach releases?
what is relationship between 2?
| hydrochloric acid|
hcl activates pepsinogen to pepsin which breaks down protein
| enzyme produced by pancreas to breakdown protein?|
|produced by the liver? do what to fats? enzyme?|| bile|
emulsify fats/ break them into smaller globs
not an enzyme!
|enzyme that digests fats?||lipase|
| enzymes on tips of microvilli?|
| brush border enzymes|
dextrinase, glucoamylase, lactase, maltase, sucrase, aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, nucleosidases, phosphatases
| gastric digestion or protein|
colors and what means?
when protein not broken down buiret is violet. when protein broken down its clear
proteins need both hcl and pepsin to be broken down
| digestion of starch|
colors and what means?
when ther is starch present lugols is a black/blue color. when none is present it stays brown.
the optimal breakdown of starch is 37-40 C which is body temp
| digestion of protein and lipids|
Colors and what means?
| Lipids and proteins of milk|
trypsin and lipase
fatty acids and amino acids
litmus is red when acidic and blue when basic
when the proteins and lipids are broken down by those pancreatic enzymes they become acidic
| absorbtion of saccarides in small intestine|
colors and what means?
| starch and glucose in semipermeable bag|
tested water around to see what go through membrane
benedicts, lugol (IKI)
benedicts is red with glucose
lugols is blue/black with starch
water turned red but not blue black. so glucose got through not starch
|2 fxns of digestive system||digestion and absorption|
| where food passes through?|
where assist digestion of this food?
| alimentary canal|
accessory digestive organs
|layers of the digestive tract important features and fxns||mucosa|
lamina propria-connective tissue
muscularis mucosae-local mvms mucosa
secretion absorption protection
submucosal plexus- nerve supply
nutrition and protection
myenteric plexus-nerve control muscles
adventitia- if not in abdomin this is more fibrous
reduce friction and protect
|on top of mouth 2, used to swallow?||hard / soft palate|
|punchbag in back of mouth||uvula|
| main swallowing muscle?|
holds to base of mouth?
|mom doesnt have any in back of mouth||palatine tonsils|
|3 areas of pharynx|| nasopharynx|
|control food entering stomach||gastroesophageal sphincter|
|4 regions of the stomach|| cardiac region|
|control food entering duodenum||pyloric sphincter|
|folds in stomach||rugae|
|regions of the small intestine and how tell apart|| duodenum- nerds candy bubbles|
jejunum- long villi
ileum- peyers patches
|control food entering large intestine||ileocecal valve|
|structures in small intestine that slows and churns food||circular folds|
|entry of large intestine? hangs off of this and harbors bacteria?|| cecum|
|regions of colon|| ascending colon|
|end part of the large intestine||rectum|
|longitudinal muscle band across large intestine||teniae coli|
|one pucker of large intestine||haustrum|
|what food exits? and what controls that area|| anus|
external anal sphincter
| 2 sets of teeth|
name teeth forward to back
| deciduous teeth permanent teeth|
|3 salivary glands and where?|| parotid gland next to ear|
sublingual gland under tounge
submandibular gland in jaw posterior to sublingual
|what the testis lie in||scrotum|
|duct system where sperm mature||epididymis|
| duct that delevers sperm from the testis|
vessels and connective tissue that sheth these
sperm empty into the?
| ductus deferens|
|3 parts of pee tube in men|| prostatic urethra|
|3 glands produce seminal fluid|| seminal vesicles |
| penis crossection|
kennys surrounding mouth
| corpora cavernosa|
|enlarged tip of penis||glans penis|
| external genitalia of women called|
big hairy lips
highly sensitive protrusion
mucus membrane that partial encloses the vagina
|hole where baby comes out?||vagina|
| place where baby is carried|
bump on superior portion
rest of uterus
entrance to uterus
3 parts of entrance from outer to inner
2 pouches next to entrance
anterior and posterior fornix
| uterine lining|
3 general layers starting from innermost
2 layers of innermost
| carrys ova to uterus|
brush like extentions
stores and matures ova
| fallopian tubes|
| ligaments holding uterus|
under fallopian tube
holds ovarys up*
| broad ligament|
| divides liver into lobes and holds to diaphragm|
bile leaves liver through?
but enters the duodenum through the?
| falciform ligament|
common hepatic duct
| fxn of gallbladder|
bile enters the duodenum through the?
if too much? what channel goes through?
| store and concentrate bile|
backs up into the gallbladder through the cystic duct
|fxn of the pancreas||secrete enzymes into the duodenum like pancreatic amylase|
|kidney circulation starting at the biggest artery|| renal artery|
cortical radiate artery
cortical radiate vein
| outer region of kidney|
inner region of kidney
where all tubes enter kidney
bend of kidey cavity
| striated regions in kidney|
between these regions
at tip of region where starts to collect urine?
those region empty into what bigger cavitys?
surrounds entire kidney
| renal pyramid|
| tube emptys kidney|
tube that emptys pee from body
| smallest functional unit of kidney?|
juxtamedullary nephrons have longer and dip into the medulla and have diff arterioles
| knotted capillary in nephron|
surrounding this capillary
whole structure called?
|name parts of tube starting from glomerulus|| proximal convoluted tubule|
loop of henle
distal convoluted tubule
| vessel that enters the glomerulus|
vessel that exits the glomerulus
vessel that runs next to renal tubule
straighter vessel that runs next to what type of nephron?
| afferent arteriole|
peritubular capillary bed
| structure that urine enters the bladder|
where urine enters the urethra
where urine exits the urethra
2 that control the voluntary release of urine
tube that urine exits the body
muscle that bladder is made of that feels streach receptors
2 and 1 structure in bladder? what made of?
| ureteral orifice|
internal urethral orifice
external urethral orifice
internal/external urethral sphincter
trigone, 2 ureteral orifices and 1 internal urethral orifice
| what gives pee yellow color? what is it?|
normal pH range? avg pH?
what is weight of liquid compared to the same volume of water?
what is that for pee?
| urochrome, metabolite of breaking down hemoglobin|
4.5 to 8.0
1.001 to 1.030
|normal constituents of pee||water, urea, Na+, K+, Ph+, S+, creatine, uric acid Ca+, Mg+, bicarbonate ions|
| number of chromosomes in sex cell? called?|
numer of chromosomes in a regular cell? called?
egg and sperm chromosome for the same trait called?
fertalized egg callled
| 23 haploid|
| when homologous chromosomes line next to thier partners called?|
4 chromatids called?
whem parts of the inner chromatids cross over called?
| sperm stem cells?|
divides to create? this cell is designed to?
after divides cells called? how many chromosomes?
after another division cells are called? how many chromosomes?
these cells now undergo what? this creates functional what?
primary spermatocyte, undergo meisis
secondary spermatocyte, 23
spermatids, 23 still
spermiogenesis creates fxnal sperm
| what cell nurishes spermatids? what look like?|
cells that are btwn these tubules called? do what?
tip of the head of the sperm called? contain enzymes that do what?
| sertoli cell. elongated cells that surround spermatids|
interstitial cells. produce testosterone which works with FSH to produce more sperm
acrosome, sperm penetration of the egg
|egg stem cell?|
become encased in what? so is called what?
then increases in size and becomes?
when epithelium changes from simple squamous to simple cuboidal the epithelium is then called?
the egg then does what? why are these two cells different and what called? what happens to that cell?
what is bigger cell called?
mature follicle called? what look like?what hormones are responsible for its growth? what happens when LH burst?
follicle cells, primordial follicle
undergoes meiosis, one contains nearly all cytoplasm, polar body, dies
vesicular follicle, egg to one side with cavity. estrogen helps it grow, but LH causes expelling of secondary oocyte
| big cavity not containing egg in vesicular follicle?|
halo inside egg?
part of follicle cells surrounding egg that stay with it when it is expelled?
| once the egg has been expelled what hormone changes the vesicular follicle to what?|
this produces what hormones that inhibit what other hormones?
if scar tissue is produced it is called?
| LH turns it into corpus luteum|
corpus luteum produces estrogen and progesterone which inhibit LH and FSH
|shed what layer on period? what under that layer? what are these 2 called? and under that layer?|
phase which layers are falling off and really airy?
phase which there are pink outline worms in holes?what happens at the end of this phase?
phase with empty spiral holes? what is secreted in this phase? for what? secreted by what?
| functional layer, basal layer, endometrium, myometrium|
proliferative phase, ovulation
secretory phase, nutrients for potential fertilized egg, elaborated glands
|fertilized egg called? looks like?|| zygote|
single cell with jelly like membrane
| mitotic divisions without growth in between?|
division forming successively smaller and smaller cells?
solid ball of 32 cells?
| when forming embryo hollows out?|
when 3 hollow layers form? what called now?
layers? what become?
ectoderm- surface tissues of body
| last stage of cleavage cells called?|
cells within that contribute to embryonic body?
outer cells? the becomes the extraembryonic membrane called? and the?
inner cell mass
| fetal blood vessels that are in the placenta?|
fluid filled chamber that encases the embryo?
protrudes from the posterior end of the yolk sac, struc basis which mesoderm migrates to for the umbillical cord?
| chorionic villi|