History 101 Final Exam

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Yalta Conference

1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war.

Potsdam Conference

The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.

Cold War

a state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare. The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another. 1945-1991.

Iron Curtain

an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy. A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region.

Containment

a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully. A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances.

Marshall Fund

...

NATO

an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security.

Warsaw Pact

treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.

Berlin Wall

a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West.

Prague Spring

In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.

Perestroika

a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society.

Brazzaville Declaration

Issued after a meeting between the leader of the Free French, de Gaulle, and representatives of the French colonies in Africa, it was designed to prove a basis for the relationship between France and her colonies. Independence or autonomy were rejected, but colonial assemblies, economic reforms, equal rights for all citizens, and greater native participation in colonial administration were proposed. Even though these concessions were extremely limited, their implementation was impeded to varying degrees by the French settlers in these territories.

Bandung Conference

The conference in which representatives from twenty-nine governments of Asian and African nations gathered in Bandung, Indonesia to discuss peace and the role of the Third World in the Cold War, economic development, and decolonization. The conference denounced colonialism in all its manifestations and said that all countries in attendance would not align with either communism (USSR) or capitalism (US).

Neocolonialism

control by a powerful country of its former colonies (or other less developed countries) by economic pressures.

Pan-Africanism

Philosophy based on the belief that Africans share common bonds and are a unified people. Adopted this to break from colonial rule.

Négritude

An ideological position that holds African American culture to be independent and valid on its own terms.

African National Congress

An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality.

Organization of African Unity

An establishment founded after the Pan-African meeting in 1963 aimed to create a sense of unity among Africans.

Apartheid

a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites.

Congress Party

This political party formed in 1885 and wanted a greater democracy and self-rule for India. It was made of Hindus and was headed by Nehru.

Muslim League

an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations

Democratic Socialism

political system in which the government takes over the means of production peacefully; people retain basic human rights and partial control over economic planning

Dalit

a member of a group of people in India, once known as "untouchables", who were outside the caste system; were considered lower than the lowest caste; have gained some rights under India's new constitution

Vietminh Front

Known as the "People's War" of national liberation from colonial rule, gradually increasing in size and effectiveness. Originally began as an anti-colonial struggle but became entangled in the Cold War. Beijing started providing V military assistance. French agreed to a peace settlement in 1954.

Battle of Dien Bien Phu

The climactic battle of the First Indochina War between French Union forces of the French Far East Expeditionary Corps, and Vietnamese Viet Minh communist revolutionary forces. The battle occurred between March and May 1954, and culminated in a massive French defeat that effectively ended the war.

Geneva Conference

A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.

Rolling Thunder

bombing campaign escalating against North Vietnam. target was the Ho Chi Minh Trail, and network of trails, bridges, and shelters in North Vietnam to Cambodia and Laos to South Viet. This bombing had little affect on Vietcong and they began to make underground tunnel systems.

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Charles de Gaulle

French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)

Robert McNamara

The US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam. He was the architech for the Vietnam war and promptly resigned after the US lost badly

Kwame Nkrumah

Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues

W.E.B. DuBois

African-American leader at the beginning of the 1900's who believed that African-Americans should have full political and social equality immediately. Emphasized use of the courts to gain these rights.

Nelson Mandela

South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)

Patrice Lumumba

the first prime minister of the Congo and also helped the Congo gain independence from Belgium; he was liked by the Congolese but not by the U.S. and the government and he was quickly imprisoned and murdered

Jawaharlal Nehru

Indian statesman and leader with Gandhi in the struggle for home rule

Mohandas Gandhi

A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Indian statesman who was the founder of Pakistan as a Muslim state (1876-1948)

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)

Ngo Dinh Diem

South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom

Andrei Sakharov

Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union.

Mikhail Gorbachev

Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)

Nikita Kruschev

emerged as a leader in the Soviet Union after the death of dictator Josef Stalin. In 1956, he advocated reform and indirectly criticized Stalin and his methods. He became the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1974.

Leonid Brezhnev

Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.

Boris Yeltsin

Was the first President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. The Yeltsin era was a traumatic period in Russian history—a period marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems. In June 1991 Yeltsin came to power on a wave of high expectations. On June 12 Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president in Russian history. But Yeltsin never recovered his popularity after endorsing radical economic reforms in early 1992 which were widely blamed for devastating the living standards of most of the Russian population. By the time he left office, Yeltsin was a deeply unpopular figure in Russia, with an approval rating as low as two percent by some estimates.

Vladimir Putin

Russian statesman chosen as president of the Russian Federation in 2000

Banana Republic

A small country, especially in Central America, that is politically unstable and whose economy is dominated by foreign companies and depends on one export, such as bananas.

Good Neighbor Policy

Roosevelt's foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region.

Descamisados

Term meaning "the shirtless ones," popularized by Juan and Evita Perón to refer to the working-class masses and dispossessed.

Brazilian Rainforest

Destruction of the rainforest is a growing problem in Brazil. With the forest cover throughout the earth rapidly declining, there is less plant life to perform the crucial process of reducing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Main sources of deforestation in the Amazon are human settlement and development of the land. Prior to the early 1960s, access to the rainforest was highly restricted. Farms established during the 1960s were based on crop cultivation and the slash and burn method.

Christian Socialism

Intellectual movement that protested the unchristian nature of the Industrial Revolution, espceially working conditions, and advocated nonviolent solutions.

Liberation Theology

Christian movement in political theology which interprets the teachings of Christ in terms of a liberation from unjust economic, political, or social conditions. It began as a movement within the Roman Catholic Church in Latin America in the 1950s-60s. Arose as a reaction to the poverty caused by the social injustice.

United Fruit Company

Most important foreign economic concern in Guatemala during the 20th century; attempted land reform aimed at United Fruit caused U.S. intervention in Guatemalan politics leading to ouster of reform government in 1954.

Standard Oil Company

John D. Rockefeller organized this in Cleveland in 1870. Through ruthless competition and superb organization, the Standard Oil Trust controlled 90 percent of oil refining in the United States by 1879.

Mexican muralists

a group of Mexican Artists determined to base their art on their indigenous history and culture existing before the European arrived. Examples include Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco.

Feminism

The movement aimed at equal rights for women in the 1970s in LA.

Cuban Missile Crisis

Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.

Organization of American States

1962: international organization that promotes peace and economic progress in the Americas.

Alliance for Progress

1961: formed by Kennedy to build up third-world nations to the point where they could manage themselves.

The Dirty War

1976-1983: military regime that followed was a reign of terror known as la Guerra sucia, in which any dissidents were kidnapped, tortured, murdered, and their children were sold.

Nationalization

The action of bringing land, property and industries under the control of the nation - government takeover.

Military dictatorships

Governments whose domination of society is held in place by the unified strength of armed soldiers.

Diego Rivera

Socialist Mexican painter of murals.

Jose Clemente Orozco

Mexican painter noted for his monumental murals.

Amanda Labarca

Born in Chile in 1886, she was a professor, writer, feminist, and an ambassador. She was most predominatenly oriented with the feminist movement in Latin America in the 1970s.

Lazaro Cardenas

President of Mexico between 1934-1940. Brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry.

Che Guevara

An Argentine revolutionary leader who was Fidel Castro's chief lieutenant in the Cuban revolution.

Chico Mendes

Fought to stop the burning and logging of the Amazon Rainforest to clear land for cattle ranching.

Juan Peron

President of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Peron, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor.

Salvador Allende

President of Chile from 1970 to 1973, a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet.

Emiliano Zapata

Mexican revolutionary who led a revolt for agrarian reforms (1879-1919).

Hugo Chavez

(1954-) Venezuelan political leader and president; set out to eliminate poverty in his country, but his methods of doing so tended to turn his country away from democracy and toward a dictatorship.

General Augusto Pinochet

Ruler of Chile from 1973 till 1990. Promoted foreign investment and privatized industry, and basically tried to solve economic problems by sponsoring capitalism.

Fidel Castro

Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba.

Fulgencio Batista

He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.

Doris Salcedo

Colombian born sculptor, a lot of her work is influenced by her experiences of life in Colombia.

Gabriel García Márquez

A Latin American writer rejecting traditional form as unsuitable for representing reality; turned to "magical realism." Wrote One Hundred Years of Solitude.

Cecil Rhodes

Englishman, financier, statesman, Empire builder of British South Africa. Prime Minister of Cape Colony (1890-96). A fervent supporter of the British imperial vision, actively promoted the extension of British rule throughout the continent of Africa until his death in 1902.

David Livingstone

Scottish missionary and explorer, exercised influence on Western attitudes toward Africa. Convinced that missionary work and economic development had to go hand in hand, introduce the 3 C's. Christianity, commerce, and civilization - to Africa.

Formal/Informal Empire

In the 1820's many African states (typically those with a fairly high degree of political integration) were able to maintain their independence from Europe and their "creeping encroachment" which many historians term to be an "informal empire."

Imperialism

state policy, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion; especially by direct territorial acquisition or gaining political and economic control of other areas.

Jules Ferry

French statesman, extended the French colonial empire. Tunisia (1881), Central Vietnam (1883), Madagascar (1885), French-Congo (1884-85). Ardent imperialist. Frequently defended his policies in debates in the French Chsmber of Deputies against both socialist and conservative critics - both were anti-imperialist. "Superior races have rights over inferior races...superior races have a right, because they have a duty. They have the duty to civilize the inferior races..."

Rudyard Kipling

Englishman, English short-story writer, poet, and novelist - celebration of British Imperialism. Tales and poems of British soldiers in India. Called on the Anglo-Saxon people to take up the "white man's burden." One of the justifications for modern imperialism. "Your new-caught sullen peoples/Half-devil and half-child...bid the sickness cease...watch Sloth and heathen Folly."

Social Darwinism

the theory that persons, groups, and races are subject to the same laws of natural selection. The weak are diminished and their cultures eliminated, while the strong grew in power and cultural influence over the weak. Used as a philosophical rationalization for imperialist, colonialist, and racist policies.

White Man's Burden

one of the justifications for modern imperialism. Social Darwinism. Bring gospel to the "heathen masses." French colonial official Albert Sarraut conceded that colonialism was originally an ac of force taken for material profit but the end result would be a better life on this planet for the conqueror and the conquered alike.

Wilfred Owen

English poet known for his anger at the cruelty of the war and his pity for the victims. In 1915, enlisted in the army - experience of trench warfare brought him to rapid maturity. Dulce et decorum est: "bent double...knock-kneed...I saw him drowning...guttering, choking, drowning(mustard gas)...white eyes writhing in his face...devil's sick of sin...dulce et decorum est pro patria mori." (it is sweet and decorous to die for one's country.) Disabled: "legless, sewn short at elbow...half his lifetime lapsed in the hot race and leap of purple spurted from his thigh...Fear...Espirit de corps...women's eyes passed from him to the strong men that were whole."

Schlieffen Plan

German general staff's early 20th century overall strategic plan for victory in the future: France to the west and Russia to the east. France and Russia had made a military alliance in 1894. The plan called for only a minimal troop deployment against Russia. To get into France, the Germans would advance through Belgium. On August 2, Germany issued an ultimatum to Belgium. On August 4 GBritain declared war on Germany for attempting to enter Belgium under the Schlieffen Plan. Obviously the plan failed and the Allies organized quickly to go to war against Germany (start of WWI).

Triple Entente

name given to the alliance among Britain, France, and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Fighting on two fronts. Balkan Tinderbox: Austro-Hungary invaded Bosnia and caused the Serbs to be upset.

Bolshevik Revolution

WWI, class struggle, Lenin provides the force, caused communism - overthrew czars, pulled Russia out of the war.

Self-determination

self-rule. Woodrow Wilson was an idealist, religious man, believed in free-trade policies, the 14 points (peace without victory, open transparent negotiations)

Young Turks

Turkey: defunct 1876 constitution had become a symbol for change for reformist elements. In 1908 - forced the sultan to restore the constitution.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Colonel Mustafa Kemal, commanded Turkish forces in WWI, helped to end the Ottoman Empire. Attempted to transform Turkey as Atatürk or "Father Turk" into a modern secular republic: trappings of a democratic system were put in place, Turkish nationalism was emphasized, Turkish language was shorn of its Arabic elements, popular education was emphasized, pasha and bey were eliminated, all Turkish citizens were given family names. Modernize the economy: established a light industrial sector, state capitalism, modernization of the agricultural sector: establishment of training institutions and model farms. Attempt to limit power of the Islamic religion and transform Turkey into a secular state. The Turkish republic was the product of his determined efforts to create a modern nation

Muslim Brotherhood

organized in 1928 by Muslim cleric Hassan al-Bana. Created as a means of promoting personal piety. Demanded strict adherence to the traditional teachings of the Prophet as set forth in the Qur'an. Rejected western ways ans sought to create a new Egypt based firmly on the precepts of the Shari'a. By 1930, had up to 1 million memebers. Took a more activist approach, including the eventual use of terrorism by a radical minority.

Pan-Arabism

ideology encompassing the idea of unifying the peoples and countries of the Arab world from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea. Closely connected to Arab nationalism: asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation. Sought to empower Arab states from outside forces by forming alliances and economic co-operation.

Pan-Islamism

political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state, often a Caliphate. Excludes culture and ethnicity as primary factors toward unification (unlike Pan-Arabism)

Caliphate

first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim community. Aristocratic-theocratic constitutional republic. Resembled elements of direct democracy and an elective monarchy. Initially led by Muhammed's disciples as a continuation of the political and religious system the prophet had established. Was formally abolished in Turkey in 1924 under Atatürk.

Shari'a Law

the code of conduct or religious law of Islam.

Balfour Declaration

Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. (p. 761)

Zionism

A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.

Anwar al-Sadat

Successor of Abdel Nasser and served as President of Egypt from 1970-1981; allowed the Muslim Brotherhood to operate as a political party; made peace with Israel in 1978; caused Egypt to be expelled from the Arab League; assassinated by Khalid Islambuli in '81.

Menachim Begin

Former Prime Minister of Israel. Signed peace treaty with Anwar Sadat in 1979.

Camp David Agreement

agreement between Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin that brought hopes of peace in the Middle East

Gamal Abdul Nasser

Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956

Suez Canal

Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882. (p. 726)

Six Day War

(1967) Short conflict between Egypt and her allies against Israel won by Israel; Israel took over the Golan Heights , The West Bank of the Jordan River; and the Sanai Peninsula.

Yom Kippur War

(RN), , This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.

Sinai Desert

where the Israelites wandered for forty years in search of the Promised Land

PLO

a political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine

Yasir Arafat

First leader of PLO- Palestinian liberation organization. Used aggressive terrorism to try to destroy Israel. Very actice throughout the 1970's and 1980's. To try to make peace with Israel, was put incharge of Palestinean Authority (PA).

Ayatollah Khomeini

Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers (1900-1989)

Hezbollah

a Shiite terrorist organization with strong ties to Iran

Intifada

an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000

OPEC

an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum.

Saddam Hussein

As president of Iraq, Saddam maintained power through the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the first Persian Gulf War (1991). During these conflicts, Saddam repressed movements he deemed threatening to the stability of Iraq, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements seeking to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively. While he remained a popular hero among many disaffected Arabs everywhere for standing up to the West and for his support for the Palestinians, U.S. leaders continued to view Saddam with deep suspicion following the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Saddam was deposed by the U.S. and its allies during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Mujaheddin

militant group in Afghanistan which sought to end Soviet rule, holy warriors.

Taliban

fundamentalist Muslim group, gained power in 1996, restored order, but imposed an extreme form of Islam on Afghanistan, supported al-Qaeda

Osama bin Laden

(1957-) Founder of al Qaeda, the terrorist network responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001, and other attacks.

Al Queda

Islamic fundamentalist group; originally supported by U.S when fighting Russia in Afghanistan; anti-us; Osama bin Laden is Leader.

Operation Desert Storm

Military operations that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition.

Theodore Roosevelt

a New York politician, who loved the outdoors, became vice president then shortly after President. He set up trust, square deals, pure food and drug act. Interested in national parks and reservations.

Feminism

the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.

Versailles Treaty

The compromise after WW1, settled land and freedom disputes. Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things. The US Senate rejected it.

Ottoman Empire

Hereditary nation state centered in Turkey. It was founded in the late 13th century after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and extended across most of Asia Minor and the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire collapsed shortly after World War II.

British and French Mandates

Arab lands of the dissolved ottoman empire fell under the French (Lebanon and Syria) or British (Iraq and Palestine) "mandates" (they took over).

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