amendment, passed in 1951, which limits presidents to two terms of office.
political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law prescribed by the Constitution; occurs by a majority of the House of Representatives voting on the president having committed "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.
amendment, passed in 1951, which permits the vice president to become acting president if both the vice president and the president's cabinets determine that the president is disabled; outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job.
group of presidential advisors not mentioned in the Constitution that every president has; composed of 14 secretaries and the attorney general.
National Security Council (NSC)
office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisors; managed by the president's national security assistant; office whose formal members include the president, vice president, secretary of state, and secretary of defense.
Council of Economic Advisors (CEA)
three-member body, appointed by the president, to advise the president on economic policy.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
office that grew out of the Bureau of the Budget, created in 1921, consisting of a handful of political appointees and hundreds of skilled professionals; performs both managerial and budgetary functions.
constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it; can be overridden by a two-thirds vote in each house.
veto taking place when Congress adjourns within ten days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
occur when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because they support the president; shown by recent studies to have little effect on the winning of a party.
War Powers Resolution
law passed in 1973 in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants and extension; viewed by presidents as unconstitutional.
ability of Congress to override a presidential decision; has power asserted by the War Powers Resolution, but causes reason to believe that, if challenged, the Supreme Court would find it in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers.
sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event requiring the president to play the role of a crisis manager.