A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.
(ca. 1167-1227) The title of Temüjin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the "oceanic" or "universal leader." Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire.
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources,in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khubilai Khan.
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing. Because of its very high mortality rate and the difficulty of preventing its spread, major outbreaks have created crises in many parts of the world.
A "secondary" or "peripheral" khan based in Persia. The khanate was founded by Hulegu, a grandson of Genghis Khan, and was bases at Tabriz in modern Azerbaijan.
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was bases in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde.
(1336-1405) Member of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, through conquest he gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam and orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire for nearly a century and founded the Mughal Empire in India.
(d. 1318) Adviser to the Il-khan ruler of Ghazan, who converted to Islam on Rashid's advice.
Nasir al-Din Tusi
(1201-1274) Persian mathematician and cosmologist whose academy near Tabriz provided the model for the planets that helped to inspire the Copernican model of the solar system.
(1220-1263) Prince of Novgorod (r.1236-1263). He submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde.
(czar) From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r.1462-1505).
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, this empire was bases at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
(1215-1294) Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r.1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire.
In Tibetan Buddhism, a teacher.
China's northern capital, first used as an imperial capital in 906 and now the capital of the People's Republic of China.
(1368-1644) Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. Their later years saw a slowdown in technological development and economic decline.
Reign period of Zhu Di (1369-1424), the third emperor of the Ming Empire (r.1403-1424). He sponsored the building of the Forbidden City, a huge encyclopedia project, the expeditions of Zheng He, and the reopening of China's border's to trade and travel.
(1371-1433) An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
(1392-1910) This dynasty ruled Korea from the fall of the Koryo kingdom to the colonization of Korea by Japan.
The "divine wind," which the Japanese credited with blowing Mongol invaders away from their shores in 1281.
(1336-1573) The second of Japan's military governments headed by a shogun (a military ruler). Sometimes called the Muromachi Shogunate.
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year-round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other factors. Temperate zones north and south of this region generally have a winter season.
Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by the differences in temperature between the rapidly heating and cooling landmasses of Africa and Asia and the slowly changing ocean waters. These strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year.
(1304-1369) Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
(1206-1526) Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders.
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
Mansa Kankan Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing; the inhabitants are called Gujarati.
Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull.
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River; from the Arabic sawahil, meaning 'shores.'
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
Port city in the modern south Arabian country of Yemen. It has been a major trading center in the Indian Ocean since ancient times.
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka.
A Persian-influenced literary form of Hindi written in Arabic characters and used as a literary language since the 1300s.
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.
Historians' name for the territories of Europe that adhered to the Latin rite of Christianity and used the Latin language for intellectual exchange in the period ca. 1000-1500.
three field system
A rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow. It gradually replaced two-field system in medieval Europe.
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.
A mechanism that harnesses the energy in flowing water to grind grain or to power machinery. It was used in many parts of the world but was especially common in Europe from 1200 to 1900.
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
In medieval Europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and banded together to promote their economic and political interests.
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows.
(European) A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern Renaissance 1400-1600.
Degree-granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities.
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
(Renaissance) European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later; (stop thinking about the after life- more about real world).
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450. See also movable type.
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon.
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Historians' term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits.
(of Iberia) Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.