is governance by leaders whose authority is based on a limited mandate from a universal electorate that selects among genuine alternatives and has some rights to political participation and opposition.
Direct Democracy or Participatory Democracy
is government of and by the people-there is active, direct participation by all citizens in the authoritative allocation of values.
is a system in which the citizens elect people to represent them in the political process and to allocate values on their behalf for society.
is a political system in which virtually all citizens periodically vote in order to select political leaders from among alternative contenders.
means that the electorate grants the authority to govern for only a short, fixed period of time, and then the electorate has the opportunity to select representatives again.
is when citizens enjoy not only Electoral Democracy but also substantial political rights and civil liberties regarding participation, personal freedoms, and opposition.
criteria for a Democracy
1. legitimate elections
2. genuine choice to elect leaders
3. limited mandate
4. majority government
6.rule of law
7. fundamental freedoms
the absence of a Limited Mandate
1. the absence of a Limited Mandate
2. the political rights and freedoms of citizens are severely limited
the allocation of values and its control penetrate into almost every aspect of its people's lives.
is an electoral democracy but its citizens' political rights and civil liberties are significantly limited.
the body of fundamental laws, rules, and practices that defines the basic structure of government, allocates power among political institutions, and regulates the relationship between citizens and the state.
operate in terms of the rule of law and ensures effective restraints on the power holders.
are incorporated in a document or set of documents
-examples are Canada
are embedded in statutes, precedents, conventions, and political practices
-examples are UK, Israel, New Zealand