Nutrition

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191 terms · Nutrition Final

What is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat?

taste

Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as

phytochemicals

All of the following are results of making poor food choices except

when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health

A parent who offers a child a favorite snack as a reward for good behavior is displaying a food behavior known as:

positive association

Which of the following represents a food choice based on negative association?

an elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he deems it a child's food

Which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients?

Fiber

Food energy is commonly expressed in kcalories and in

kilojoules

All of the following are classified as macronutrients except

calcium

Approximately how many nutrients are considererd indispensable in the diet?

40

A diet provides a total of 2200 kcalories of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbohydrate are contained in the diet?

220

How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?

16

Among the following, which is the major weakness of a laboratory-based study?

The results cannot be applied to human beings

Overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a:

positive correlation

What is the benefit of using a large sample size in an experiment?

chance variation is ruled out

In nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eatne by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as

epidemiological studies

A health magazine contacted you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amounts of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be:

The Recommended Dietary Allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.

Recommended Dietary Allowances may be used to

assess dietary nutrient adequacy for individuals.

The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally

designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people.

Which of the following is not a feature of the Adequate Intake (AI) and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?

The percentage of people covered is known for both values

Bob consumes about 2500 kcalories per day, whcih is apportioned as 150 g of fat, 140 g of carboohydrate, and 150 g of protein. What would be the appropriate revisions to help Bob adjust his nutrient intake so that it matches the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges?

70 g fat, 156 g protein, 313 g carbohydrate

The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases ar termed the:

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

What is the AMDR for fat?

20-35%

Which of the following is an anthropometric measure?

body weight

Which of the following is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency?

laboratory tests

Which of the following would most likely lead to primary nutrient deficiency?

inadequate nutrient intake

Which of the following is an overt symptom of iron deficiency?

headaches

What entity coordinates nutrition-related activities of federal agencies?

the National Nutrition Monitoring program

Factors known to be related to a disease but not proven to be causal are called

risk factors

Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition?

4

Which of the following factors makes the greatest contribution to deaths in the United States?

tobacco

Which of the following describes the legal limitations, if any, for a person who disseminates dietary advide to the public?

a license to practice as a nutritionist or dietitian is required by some states

Which of the following individuals is most likely to possess the least amount of nutrition training?

Certified Nutritionist

All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a Registered Dietitian except

completing up to three-week clinical internship or the equivalent

A person viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying a food choice behavior most likely based on

emotional comfort

A subclinical nutrient deficiency is defined as one that

is in the early stages.

Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?

The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease

Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?

Registered dietitian

Terms that describe a food that provides health benefits beyond its nutrient contribution include all of the following except

phytonutritional food

The complete lining of a person's digestive tract is renewed approximately every

3-5 days.

Which of the following is classified as a micronutrient?

iron

Which of the following is an organic nutrient?

Fat

Which of the following cannot add fat to the body?

inorganic nutrients

How much energy is required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree celsius?

1 kilocalorie

Gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy?

fats

International units of energy are expressed in

kilojoules

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the composition of most foods?

contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two may predominate

Which of the following is a feature of the minerals as nutrients?

Some become dissolved in body fluids

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the vitamins?

Inorganic

How many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings?

13

Your friend Julie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and stated that she felt a lot better. Her experience is best described as a(n)

anecdote

What is the benefit of using placebos in an experiment?

All subjects receive a treatment

In the scientific method, a tentative solution to a problem is called the

hypothesis

A clinical trial must involve

human beings as subjects

The smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient

requirement

Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the

Estimated Average Requirement.

All of the following features are shared by the RDA and the AI except

neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people.

Which of the following is a purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake?

Setting nutrient goals for individuals

What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?

45-65%

What is the AMDR for protein?

10-35%

The motive for a person who alters his diet due to religious convictions is most likely his:

values

The Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to

plan and evaluate diets for healthy people.

An essential nutrient is one that cannot be

made in sufficient quantities by the body

The diet-planning principle that provides all the nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health is called

adequacy or moderation

Which of the following is the most calcium-dense food?

Nonfat milk

Nutrient dense refers to foods that:

provide more nutrients relative to kcalories

Which of the following is an expression of the nutrient density of a food?

0.01 mg iron per kcal

Which of the following is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?

its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B-12

Which of the following is an alternative choice for meats in the USDA Food Guide?

nuts

Which of the following foods could help meet the iron needs of vegetarians who consume dairy?

legumes

According to the principles of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of:

grains

Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with:

diabetes

What nutrient makes up most of the endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice?

starch

The part of the grain that remains after being subjected to refining is the:

endosperm

Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content?

whole-grain

What mineral is added in the enrichment process of refined flours?

iron

The most highly fortified foods on the market are:

breakfast cereals

Which of the following is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?

nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment

Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels includes all of the following except:

the amount recommended for ingestion each day

A food label ingredient list reads: wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?

cornstarch

By law, a serving size on beverage food labels is:

8 fluid ounces

All of the following are features of serving size information on food labels except:

small bags of individually wrapped food items must contain only one serving

According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins MUST be listed on the package label?

vitamins A and C

On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?

2000

According to the FDA, which of the following diet-health messages on food labels represents a qualified health claim?

lipids and obesity

Which of the following ingredients found on a food label is a source of protein?

tofu

Which of the following are allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?

milk products and plant foods only

In vegetarians, the RDA is higher for

iron

Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in vegetarians?

vegetarians absorb iron more efficiently

Textured vegetable protein is usually made of:

soy protein

In which of the following food groups are legumes found?

meats

Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by fruit juice?

50

The consumption of 2000 kcalories per day is sufficient to meet the energy needs of most

sedentary women

All of the following are examples of legumes except

potatoes

Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?

400-500

General features of legumes include all of the following except:

they are high in fat

Legumes are used as meat alternatives for all of the following reasons except

they can be graded as prime, choice, and select

In food exchange lists, to what group are olives assigned?

fat

The addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient

fortification

Which of the following is an enrichment nutrient for grains?

folate

The "More Matters" food campaign promotes increased consumption of

fruits and vegetables

Textured vegetable protein is usually made from

soybeans

A meat described as "prime cut" means that it

is higher in fat than other cuts of meat

Which of the following is a characteristic of food serving sizes?

serving sizes on food labels are nto always the same as those of the USDA Food Guide

Approximately how many grams are in an ounce?

30

Population groups such as sedentary older men, sedentary younger women, and active older women have a daily energy need (kcalories) of approximately

2000

Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the

Daily Values

Which of the following foods qualifies as a "good source" of calcium?

yogurt with 150 mg of calcium

Which of the following is descriptive of the FDA's "A" list?

a series of unqualified health claims on food labels

Which of the following is a feature of the FDA's regulations of food label health claims?

there are four grades of health claim quality: A, B, C, and D

All of the following are documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet except

lower rates of anemia

Which of the following foods provides discretionary kcalories for the person on a weight reduction diet?

canned pears in syrup

Which of the following foods' kcalories would be considered as part of one's discretionary kcalorie allowance?

jam

Cooking an 8-ounce raw steak will reduce the weight (ounces) to approximately

6

According to U.S. food labeling regulations, clear and convincing evidence has been found for all of the following claims regarding nutrition and disease except

sugar and diabetes

According to nutrition labeling laws, what two minerals MUST be listed on the package label as percent Daily Value?

calcium and iron

About how many more times sensitive is the sense of smell compared with the sense of taste?

1000s (thousands)

Which of the following is NOT a sphincter muscle?

duodenum

What structure functions to prevent entrance of food into the trachea?

epiglottis

What is a bolus?

portion of food swallowed at one time

What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?

prevents the contents of the intestines from backing up into the stomach

What structure separates the colon from the small intestine?

ileocecal valve

Which of the following is a description of chyme?

a semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines

Among the GI tract organs, which has the strongest muscles?

stomach

What is reflux?

backward flow of cyme

What is the function of mucus in the stomach?

protects stomach cells from gastric juices

Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all of the following except:

it activates pancreatic lipase

Which part of the GI tract contains highly acidic digestive juices?

stomach

Which of the following would NOT be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?

fiber

An example of an important function of the colon would be its absorption of:

salts

What is the function of bile?

emulsifies fats

Which of the following is an important function of the intestinal villi crypts.

secretion of juices into the small intestine

What is the name of the projections on the inner surface of the small intestine?

villi

Which of the following are found on the microvilli and function to break apart small nutrients into the final products of digestion?

enzymes

To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to:

combine different food types to enhance the absorption process

What is the first vessel to receive absorbed water-soluble vitamins?

hepatic portal vein

When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the:

liver

Which of the following conducts lymph into the vascular system?

subclavian vein

What is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?

heart

The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release:

cholecystokinin

What substance controls the release of bile into small intestines?

cholecystokinin

What is the normal pH of the stomach juice?

1.5 - 1.7

Which of the following substances functions to control the release of hydrochloric acid to prevent excessive acidity?

gastrin

The intestinal flora are comprised primarily of

bacteria

Which of the following results from reverse peristalsis?

vomiting

A person with chronic diarrhea is at risk for which of the following?

dehydration

Therapy for constipation would include all of the following except:

decreasing fiber intake

Which of the following is a common cause of constipation?

lack of physical activity

Antacids were originally developed to treat

active ulcer in the stomach

All of the following are important issues in the treatment or management of existing ulcers except:

gastric acid release should be suppressed

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