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Koran

The holy book.
Contains words of Muhammad (Messages from Allah/God)
Written by followers

Miraj

Night ride
Muhammad visits heaven from Ka'aba
Woken by Gabriel
Meets Jesus and Abraham
Goes to Jerusalem

Hegira

the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era

Khadija

Muhammad's wife; a wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business

Abu Talib

Muhammad's uncle
Raised Muhammad

Abu Bakr

One of first converts
Muhammad's companion to Medina

Ka'aba

Black center piece/House of worship
Once pure white stone in temple originally built by angels for God
Washed away by sands of time
Found again by Abraham -- makes temple to atone for what he did to Hagar
In Mecca

Mosque

Place of worship
Call to Prayer

Arabic

Language of Islam
Holy language
Language Koran is written in

Jihad

a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal

5 Pillars

Duties:
Shahada -- Faith
Salat -- Prayer
Zakat -- Alms
Hajj -- Pilgrimage to Mecca
Sawn -- Fasting

Sharia

Islamic law
Required tolerance of people of the book
Makes religion part of daily life

"People of the book"

Jews, Christians, Muslims.
All use a version of the holy book, Koran, Gospel, Torah, containing words of God
Monotheistic
All have judgement day
All believe the other has gotten something wrong

Rightly Guided Caliphs

Successors after Muhammad
Closest to Muhammad
Used Koran/Muhammad's actions as guides
Caliphate

Convivencia

Term meaning living together/coexistance that reflects the fact that Muslim, Christinan, and Jewish communities lived together in Islamic Spain.

Abbasid

Rebel Group after Umayyads
750-1258

Ummayad

Dynasty after RG Caliphs

Sunni

'Followers of Muhammads Example"
Did not OUTWARDLY resis Umayyads

Shi'a

Resisted Ummayads
Made alternate caliph system
Thought relative of M must rule
"Party of Ali"

Abd Al Rahman

only survivor of the abbasid raid, he crossed the arabian peninsula into spain and was accpeted into Cordoba as unquestioned leader. He is leader of the islamic empire of spain

Al Andalus

City in spain

Reconquista

The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.

1492

columbus arrives in the americas/ Reconquista of Spain

Battle of Tours

The 732 battle that halted the advance of Muslim armies into Europe at a point in northern France
Muslims didn't really care

Sufi

Reacted to Umayyads rule with life of poverty -> following religious path
Like Buddhist monks
Became active missionaries

Mecca

City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.

Medina

City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.

Call to Prayer

5x a day
Towards Mecca
Salat/Prayer

Shahada

Testimony of Faith
'No god but Allah and Muhammad his prophet'

Salat

Prayer

Zakat

Alms
Responsibility to support the less fortunate
Religious tax
Giving what you can to help others

Hajj

Pilgrimage to Mecca
Raises social status

Sawn

Fasting
God more powerful thus more important than wordily desires

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