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The white matter of the spinal cord contains

bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions

In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as

columns

layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed

subarachnoid space

dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form

spinal nerve

Each peripheral nerve provides

both motor AND sensory and motor OR sensory

Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the

subarachnoid space

stretch reflex

both is important in regulating muscle length and is activated when a skeletal muscle lengthens

The spinal cord continues to elongate until about age

4 years

If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed

sensory input would be blocked

Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the

pia mater

In meningitis

all of these

Spinal nerves are

both sensory and motor

The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

somatic motor nuclei.

The preganglionic fibers that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord form

white rami communicantes

The reflex movement of the head toward a loud noise is directed by the mesencephalon. Which nuclei accomplish this

inferior colliculi

Cerebrospinal fluid

is secreted by ependymal cells

Which of the following symptoms would you associate with damage to the spinal accessory nerve

weakness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

region of the brain responsible for predicting the consequence of events or actions is

prefrontal cerebral cortex.

respiratory rhythmicity center is located in

the medulla oblongata.

Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the

thalamus

The highest levels of information processing occur in the

cerebrum

The dural sinuses are located in the

dural folds

Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to

play the piano

Which of these is not one of the main divisions of the adult brain

prosencephalon

The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol

ataxia

Damage to the corpora quadrigemina would interfere with

visual and auditory reflex movements of the head and neck

Which of the following is a function of the thalamus

process sensory information and relay it to the cerebrum

The cardiovascular reflexes are based in the

medulla oblongata

Sensory innervation of the lower teeth and gums is by the ________ nerve

mandibular branch of the trigeminal

The postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the

cerebellum

CSF circulates, ________ between it and the interstitial fluid of the CNS is unrestricted between and across the ependyma

diffusion

Parkinson disease is the result of

inadequate production of dopamine by substantia nigra neurons

medulla oblongata regulates

both blood pressure and respiration

patient develops a tumor of a cranial nerve that leads to difficulty in speaking from a loss of tongue movement

hypoglossal

Each lateral ventricle communicates with the third ventricle through

interventricular foramen

The control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the

medulla oblongata

Damage to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus leads to which problem

reduced ability to regulate body temperature

Hydrocephalus or "water on the brain" may

result from excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid or result from blockage of circulation of CSF

cranial nerve that has three major branches is the

trigeminal

Which of the following is a property of the blood-brain barrier

all of these

white matter of the cerebellum forms the

arbor vitae

IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)

are local hyperpolarizations

Cholinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter

acetylcholine

Integral membrane proteins that connect electrical synapses are called

connexons

the process of continuous action potential propagation

the action potential is triggered by graded depolarization of the initial segment,...

Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons

The axon would be unable to generate action potentials

Clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neurons are called

Nissl bodies

The ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is

calcium

Functions of astrocytes include all of the following, except

conducting action potentials

In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells participate in the repair of damaged nerves by

forming a cellular cord that directs axonal regrowth

How does blocking retrograde axoplasmic transport in an axon affect the activity of a neuron

The soma becomes unable to respond to changes in the distal end of the axon

The ________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles

somatic

Extensive damage to oligodendrocytes in the CNS could result in

loss of sensation and motor control

The all-or-none principle states that

all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials

Which of the following types of nerve fiber possesses the fastest speed of impulse propagation

type A

Glial cells that surround the neurons in ganglia are

satellite cells

Most CNS neurons lack centrioles. This observation explains

why CNS neurons cannot regenerate

The effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic membrane depends on

all of these

The site of intercellular communication between neurons is the

synapse

Deteriorating changes in the distal segment of an axon as a result of a break between it and the soma is called ________ degeneration

Wallerian

The ________ nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord

central

Any stimulus that opens ________ ion channel will produce a graded potential

any of these

If the permeability of a resting axon to sodium ion increases,

both the membrane potential will depolarize and inward movement of sodium ion will increase

Opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes

both depolarization and increased positive charge inside the membrane

Adrenergic synapses release the neurotransmitter

norepinephrine

The rabies virus travels to the CNS via

retrograde axoplasmic transport

Neurotransmitter for release is stored in synaptic

vesicles

Each of the following is an example of a neuroeffector junction, except the junction between a neuron and a

nerve cell.

The first step in the process of photoreception is

absorption of a photon by a visual pigment

Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain

cerebrum

The opening in the iris through which light passes is the

pupil

A loud noise causes

all of these

Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations

peppery

The largest numbers of taste buds in adults are associated with the

circumvallate papillae

Before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to

bind to receptors in olfactory cilia

The space between the cornea and the iris is the

anterior cavity

The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the

auditory tube

When a rod is stimulated by light

all of these

In which of the following cases would the focal distance be greater

a flat lens

The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the

auditory ossicles

When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive

white

Which of the following statements about the retina is TRUE

all of these are true.

Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places

all of these

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stapes

seals the oval window

The external ear ends at the

tympanic membrane

A pigment synthesized from vitamin A is

retinal

A sty

all of these

A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order?

conjunctiva cornea aqueous humor .....

All of the following compose the epithelial projections found on the tongue, except

gustatory papillae

The gelatinous material that gives the eyeball its basic shape is the

vitreous humor

If your vision is 20/15, this means that you can

see objects at 20 feet that individuals with normal eyesight can see at 15 feet

Which of the following is a function of tears

all of these

An adult has approximately ________ taste buds

3000

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term otoliths

tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium

In the light-adapted state

photoreceptors are much less sensitive to stimulation

Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves

VII, IX, X

The taste sensation that is triggered by the amino acid glutamate is known as

umami

Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the

tympanic membrane

A sudden rise of room brightness would cause

contraction of the sphincter pupillary muscles

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term ossicles

transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear

The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the

auditory ossicles

Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the

saccule and utricle

The shape of the lens is controlled by the

ciliary muscles

A normal, relaxed inhalation carries about ________ of the inhaled air to the olfactory organs

2 percent

Which of the following produces a lipid-rich secretion that prevents the upper and lower eyelids from sticking together at their edges

tarsal gland

Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on

the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae

Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound

rhodopsin

The frequency of a perceived sound depends on

which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated

Why do things look blurry underwater without dive goggles or mask

Rather than air, light is moving from water into the cornea and is thus refracted too little for a sharp focus

The vitreous body

helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina

What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision

ciliary body

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor

excessive production may lead to glaucoma

All of the following are true of the lacrimal glands, except that they

produce a strongly hypertonic fluid.

The quantity of neurotransmitter that is released by a hair cell

responds to almost any mechanical stimulation of the hair cell, is sensitive to which way stereocilia are bent with respect to the kinocilium, and determines if a sensory neuron will be excited

The cranial nerve that has three major branches is the

trigeminal

Difficulties in estimating temporal relationships between events may stem from damage to

the prefrontal cortex

The brain requires a substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliver blood to the brain are the

internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries only

Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the

medulla oblongata

The thin partition that separates the first and second ventricles is the

septum pellucidum

The cranial nerves that innervate the eye muscles are

III, IV, and VI.

The cerebellum and pons develop from the

metencephalon

The white matter of the cerebellum forms the

arbor vitae

Absorption at the arachnoid granulations returns CSF to the

venous circulation

The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the

longitudinal fissure

Cerebrospinal fluid enters the subarachnoid space through the

lateral and median apertures

Increased production and release of acetylcholine by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in

spastic, uncontrolled muscle contractions

Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the

cerebellum

As CSF circulates, ________ between it and the interstitial fluid of the CNS is unrestricted between and across the ependyma

Diffusion

The optic tracts carry visual information from the retina to the

lateral geniculates

The medulla oblongata relays auditory information to the

inferior colliculi.

What structure is covered by many blood vessels and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain

pia mater

The medulla oblongata regulates

both blood pressure and respiration

Integrative centers concerned with the performance of complex processes are restricted to either the left or the right hemisphere. These complex processes include

all of these

The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in

the medulla oblongata

The primary motor cortex is the surface of the

precentral gyrus

Higher-order functions

all of these

Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus

all of these

The auditory cortex is located in the

temporal lobe

Which antibiotic enters the CNS without difficulty because it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier

sulfadiazine

Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are

lobes

Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of

Parkinson disease

Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect

voluntary motor activity

A reflex that is used to assess the sensory function of the trigeminal nerve is the ________ reflex

corneal

Each lateral ventricle communicates with the third ventricle through a

interventricular foramen

The cerebellar hemispheres are separated by a band of cortex called the

vermis

Recognized neuronal circuit patterns include all of the following, except

multipolar

The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called

horns

The outermost connective-tissue covering of nerves is the

epineurium

Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the

subarachnoid space.

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