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This is a set I made from a vocabulary list given to me to study for the National Middle School Science Bowl. It is not the offical study set, but another one that my coach decided to use to help. It took A LONG time to type. I made it for my team to use.... GO TEAM....so randomness.

technology

the application of science through the use of special procedures or devices

dependent variable

a variable that is not under the expirementer's control

constant

not changing or varying

meter

a standard of measurement equal to a little over a yard

metric

a standard of measurement

millimeter

a standard of measurement equal to one thousandth of a meter

centimeter

a standard of measurement equal to one hundredth of a meter

decimeter

a standard of measurement equal to one tenth of a meter

kilometer

a standard of measurement equal to one thousand meters

Celsius

metric temperature scale on which water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees

Farenheit

tempurature scale on which water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees

law

a statement of scientific fact

theory

an idea based on speculation

hypothesis

a theory which needs further investigation

volume

the space inside of an object

mass

the amount of matter an object contains

property

a trait or attribute

control

the standard against which experimental test results are compared

density

a measure of a quantity of mass per unit of volume

lipid

any group of organic compunds consisting of fats, oils, and related substances; a part of the structural components of a living cell

monomer

a single organic molecule that can join in long chains with other molecules

amino acid

nitrogen-containing organic molecules that from the basic buliding units of proteins

nucleic acid

a complex acid found in living cells

aromatic

a class of organic chemical compounds that contains one or more rings of carbon atoms

polymer

a compound with repeating small molecules such as starch and nylon

petroleum

crude oil found in sedimentary rocks and consisting mainly of hydrocarbons

synthetic

a substance made by a chemical process

hydrocarbon

an organic chemical containing only hydrogen and carbon

organic compound

elements that exist together naturally without synthetic chemicals

saturated

containing the maximum amount of absorbed solvent

unsaturated

having double or triple carbon atoms

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

substance carrying an organism's genetic information

density

a measure of quantity such as mass or electric charge per unit volume

solvent

a substance in which other substances are dissoloved

freezing point

the temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid

alloy

any mixture of two or more materials

antifreeze

a liquid that lowers the freezing point

solubility

the capacity for one substance to dissolve another

supersaturated

a chemical solution that contains a greater amount of solute than normally possible, often as a result of cooling

electrolyte

a chemical compound which separates into ions in a solution

ionization

a process in which an atom or molecule loses or gains electrons

dissociation

the process by which an ionic solid will separate into its ions in a solution

ion

an electrically charged atom or atom group

positive ion

an atom missing one or more of its electrons

covalent

a chemical bond between two atoms created by sharing a pair of electrons

neutral

with zero electric charge

formula

a set of symbols representing chemical composition

oxidation number

the number of associated electrons in a compound

polar molecule

chemical compund with an unequally distributed electric charge

nonpolar

chemical compunds with an equally distributed electric charge

hydrate

a compound containing water molecules

bond

an attractive force that binds atoms and ions in a molecule

ductile

moldable, as in the characteristic of metals

radioactive

the emission of energy in the form of streaming particles by substances such and uranium or plutonium

transition element

an element in groups of three through twelve of the periodic table

semiconductors

a partially conductive solid

transuranium

having an atomic number over 92

allotropes

one of several different forms in which a chemical element occurs, each with different physical properties but the same atomic compostion

sublimation

a chemical process in which a solid is directly converted to a gas

diatomic

having two atoms per molecule

ionic

relating to matter in the form of charged atoms or groups of atoms

metallic

containing or made of metal

alkali

a chemical substance that is water soluble, neutralizes acid, and forms salts with them

noble gas

a chemically non-reactive gas

distillation

the process of separating a mixture by evaporation and condensation

colloid

a suspension of small particles dispersed in another substance

solution

the state of one substance being dissolved in another substance

mixture

a substance containing several ingredients which have been blended together

Tyndall effect

the scattering of light by minute particles in its path, such as dust in the air

compound

a substance made by combining two or more different elements

suspension

a dispersion of fine solid particles in a liquid

heterogenous

a chemical substance consisting of different and distinguishable materials

element

a substance that can not be broken down into a simpler one by a chemical reaction

tungsten

a specific metallic chemical element with a very high melting point

proton

a stable, elementary particle that is a component of all atomic nuclei; carries a positve charge equal to that of the electron's negative charge

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element

isotope

a form of an element with the same atomic number

periodic table

a table of chemical elemetns arranged according to their atomic numbers

neutron

an elementary particle without an electric charge

electron

a stable, negatively charged elementary particle with a small mass that is a basic ingredient of matter and orbits the nucleus of an atom

quark

a basic component of particles

metalloid

a nonmetallic element that had properties between those of a metal and a nonmetal

particle

a basic unit of matter; a molecule, atom, or electron

nitrogen

an element common in the Earth's atmosphere

metal

a chemical element that is usually a shiny solid and conducts heat or electricity

machine

a device that makes work easier to preform

simple machine

any device that only requires the application of a single force to work

Ideal Mechanical Advantage (IMA)

the factor by which a machine multiplies the force put into it

device

a tool or machine which perfroms a particular task or function

gear

a toothed wheel that enagages another toothed mechanism in order to transmit motioin from one rotating body to another

efficiency

the measure of a machine's energy effectiveness

wheel and axel

a simple machine consisting of a large wheel rigidly secured to a smaller wheel or shaft, called an axel

ramp

a sloped surface used to move from one level to another

screw

a simple machine of the inclined-plane mtype consisting of a spirally threaded, cylindrical rod that engages into a similarily threaded hole

James Watt

engineer and inventor whose improvements of the steam engine led to its wide use in industry

lever

a rigid bar that pivots around a fulcrum and is used to move or lift a heavy load at one end by applying force to the other

wedge

a block that is thick at one end and thinner at the other, used to secure or separate two objects

pulley

a wheel with a grooved rim over which a belt or chain or chain can move to change the direction of a pulling force

fulcrum

th point about which a lever turns

inclined plane

slanted surface used to raise or lower an object

pivot

an object on which a larger object turns

output force

energy or power produced by a system

input force

power or energy that enters a device and is recovered in the form of work or some other output effect

applied force

a force which is applied to an object by a person or another object

expand

to cause something to increase in size or volume as a result of a rise in temperature or a decrease in pressure

buoyant force

a force that causes objects in a liquid to float or rise to the surface or upward in gas

Archimedes

Greek mathemetician, physicist, and inventor, best known for the lever and the pulley

viscosity

the property orf a fluid that resists flowind

diffusion

the random movement of atoms, molecules, or ions, from one site in a medium to another, resulting in complete mixing

sublimation

the change of ice to vapor or vapor to ice without a liquid stage

kilocalorie

a unit of energy equal to a nutritional calorie

boiling point

the degree of temperature at which a liquid turns to gas

heat of fusion

the heat released when liquid water freezes to solid ice

plasma

a hot ionized gas made up of ions and electronsfound in the sun, stars, and fusion reactors

pascal

a unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter

SI unit

a unit of measure in the International System of Units

compressed

redused in volume by pressure

solid

a substance that retains its shape

liquid

a substance whose shape can change but whose volume cannot

gas

a substance that is neither a solid nor a liquid and that has the ability to expand

redox

an abbreviation for oxidation-reduction, a process in which there is an electron transfer

precipitate

a suspension of small solid particles formed in a solution as the result of a chemical reaction

reactant

a substance undergoing a chemical reaction

Antoine Lavoisier

French chemist know as the "father" of modern chemistry

exothermic

a reaction that produces heat

endothermic

a reation that abosorbs heat

decompostion

chamical change in which a substance is broken down into two or more simpler substances

combustion

process in which a substance reacts forcefully with oxygen to produce heat and light

catalyst

a chemical that increases the rate of a chemical reaction

corrosion

process in which a substance, such as metal, is destroyed gradually by a chemical action

reduction

a chemical reaction which brings about a grain in hydrogen, a loss in oxygen, or an increase in electrons

synthesis

the process of forming a complex compound from a chemical reaction involving two or more simpler elements

endergonic

a chemical reaction in which energy is abosorbed

acid

a corrosive substance with a pH less than seven; turns blue litmus paper red

ammonia

a colorless, pungent, water soluble gas made up of nitrogen and hydrogen

indicator

an organic compund that changes color in acid or base

titration

a way of determining the concentration of a solution

base

a chemical compound having pH between eight and fourteen; reacts with acids to form salts

pH

a measure of acidity or alkalinity

buffer system

a substance that minimizes a change in the pH of a soluton by neutralizing added acids and bases

polyester

a synthetic polymer used in making textile fibers

detergent

a cleansing substance, especially a synthetic liquid that dissolves dirt and oil

hydronium

the positive ion containing three hydrogen and one oxygen formed when an acid dissolves in water

saponification

the reaction of an ester with metallic base and water which produces soap

neutralization

the addition of substances to neutralize water so that it is neither acidic nor alkaline

compressional wave

a wave that moves in the same direction as the periodic motion of the medium

frequency

the number of wavelengths that passes a fixed pont every second

amplitude

the measurement of the height of a transverse wave

transverse wave

a wave that cause the crosswise disturbance of a medium

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