The first stage of a criminal trial in which the court clerk reads the charge and the defendant enters a plea.
Challenge for Cause:
The right of the Crown or defence to exclude someone from a jury for a particular reason.
Charge to the Jury:
The judge's explanation to the jurors of how the law applies to the case before them.
The court official who assists the judge.
Testimony given by a witness to prove an alleged fact.
A lawyer on duty in a courtroom or police station to give free legal advice to persons just arrested or brought before the court.
The right of the Crown or the defence to exclude someone from a jury without providing a reason.
A court order requiring the witness to appear in court on a certain date to give evidence.
A mini trial that takes place during a trial; jurors are excluded while the judge, the Crown, and the defence discuss the admissibility of evidence.
Justice of the Peace:
A court official who has less authority than a judge but can issue warrants and perform other judicial functions.
A jury that cannot reach an unanimous verdict and, consequently, is dismissed from the case.
Indirect evidence that leads to a reasonable inference of the defendant's guilt.
Evidence given by a witness based on information from a third-party.
The criminal offence of knowingly making false statements in court while giving evidence under oath or affirmation.
A decision by the judge to withdraw the cases from the jury and enter a verdict of not guilty.
The crime of encouraging the perpetrator to commit an offence.
Absolute Liability Offences:
Offences that do not require mens rea and to which the accused can offer no defence.
Latin for the guilty act. Which refers to a voluntary action, omission, or state of being that is forbidden by the Criminal Code.
A criminal offence that involves helping a perpetrator commit a crime.
Party to a Common Intention:
The shared responsibility among criminals for additional offences that are committed in the course of the crime they originally intended to commit.
The desire to commit a wrongful act for its own sake, with no ulterior motive or purpose.
The desire to commit one wrongful act for the sake of accomplishing another.
Strict Liability Offence:
In criminal law, offences that do not require mens rea; the accused offers the defence of due diligence.
A deliberate closing of one's mind to the possible consequences of one's actions.
Laws covering less serious offences at the provincial or municipal level; most often punishable by fines.
Latin for the guilty mind. A deliberate intention to commit a wrongful act, with reckless disregard for the consequences.
The reason a person commits a crime.
A crime that involves advising, recommending, or persuading another person to commit a criminal offence.
An agreement between two or more people to carry out an illegal act, even if that act does not actually occur.
Accessory After the fact:
Someone who knowingly receives, comforts, or assists a perpetrator in escaping from the police.
The defence that the accused took every reasonable precaution to avoid committing a particular offence.
The person who actually commits a crime.