The spinal cord is continuous with the brain and extends downward through the______.
The spinal cord begins at the level of the______and terminates near the intervertebral disc that separates the first and second lumbar vertebrae.
The spinal cord consists of______segments, each of which gives rise to a pair of spinal nerves.
The______of the spinal cord are the cervical enlargement and the lumbar enlargement.
The______supplies nerves to the upper limbs.
The______supplies nerves to the lower limbs.
The______is the tapered end of the spinal cord.
The______is a thin cord of connective tissue that anchors the spinal cord to the upper surface of the coccyx.
The______is a group of spinal nerves below the conus medullaris formed by the filum terminale and the spinal nerves.
anterior median fissure, posterior median sulcus
Two grooves that extend the length of the spinal cord are the deep_______and a shallow_______,dividing it into left and right halves.
In a cross section of the_______, white matter surrounds gray matter.
Each side of the gray matter is divided into______; the following three: posterior horn, anterior horn, and lateral horn.
_______are located in the anterior horns.
The______is a horizontal bar of gray matter in the middle of the spinal cord, connects the wins of the gray matter on the right and left side.
The______is a canal running through the center of the gray commissure down the entire length of the spinal cord.
Three regions of the______are posterior funiculi, anterior funiculi, and lateral funiculi.
______are groups of myelinated nerve fibers in the CNS.
The two main functions of the______is that it is a center for spinal reflexes and a conduit for nerve impulses from the brain.
______are the simplest of nerve pathways, that travel through the nervous system and includes only a few neurons.
A______begins with a receptor at the dendritic end of the a sensory neuron.
nerve impulses on the______enter the CNS and constitute a sensory or afferent limb of the reflex.
The CNS is a______.
______may synapse with interneurons in which either may ultimately connect with motor neurons, whose fibers pass outward from the CNS to effectors.
Reflexes are______, subconscious responses to changes within or outside the body.
Reflexes function to maintain______by controlling many involuntary processes such as heart rate, breathing rate, etc.
simple monosynaptic reflex
The knee-jerk reflex is an example of a______because it only uses two neurons.
The______is initiated by striking the patellar tendon.
When the patellar ligament is struck, the______is pulled.
When the quadriceps femoris muscle is pulled,______are stimulated.
The stretch receptors generate a nervous impulse that pass along the peripheral process of an axon of a unipolar sensory neuron, enters the spinal cord at the lumbar on an axon; the axon synapses with a______.
The axon of the______synapses with the quadriceps muscle and the muscle responds by contracting.
The______helps maintain posture.
The______occurs when a person touches something painful.
In the______, muscles on the affected side contract and the flexor muscles on the unaffected side are inhibited.
The______on the unaffected side contract, helping to support the body weight that has been shifted.
A______reflex is due to interneuron pathways within the reflex center of the spinal cord that allow sensory impulses arriving on one side of the cord to pass across to the other side and produce an opposite effect.
A______protects because it prevents or limits tissue damage when a body part touches something potentially harmful.
In the______, activated skin receptors send sensory impulses to the spinal cord.
During a withdrawal reflex, some of the incoming impulses stimulate interneurons that inhibit the action of the antagonistic extensor muscle (______).
During a withdrawal reflex, flexor muscles on the affected side (______) contract.
During a withdrawal reflex, flexor muscles on the other side (______) is inhibited.