How Safe is Our Food Supply? - Chapter 13

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EXAM 3

CDC - Center for Disease Control

Monitors food-borne illness

FDA - Food and Drug Agency

Ensures processed foods safety

USDA - US Department of Agriculture

Ensures meat, poultry and egg safety

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency

Regulates pesticides and water quality

NMFS - National Marine Fisheries

Voluntary inspection of fish

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Inspects seafood

ATF - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

Regulates and inspects alcohol production

Toxicity

Determined by dose and compound or microbe consumed. May also depend on the size, diet and health of the recipient.

National Food Safety Initiative

Seeks to reduce food-borne illness by improving practices from the farm to the fork and coordinating the efforts of Federal Agencies

HACCP - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

Food-borne illness prevention system designed to improve food safety in US. Enforced by FDA and USDA.

Pathogens

(bacteria, viruses and molds) Cause illness in humans.

Food-borne Infection

Microbes set up and grow in GI tract may take a few days to develop illness so often under diagnosed

Salmonella

Common in raw meats, poultry & eggs - most common food-borne illness in US causing flu-like symptoms a couple days later

Campylobacter

Common fecal-to-oral causing diarrhea can cause Guillain-Barre Syndrome where immune system attacks own nerves and causes paralysis

Traveler's Diarrhea

Primarily from Eschericia coli

Food Intoxication

Microbes produce toxin that causes illness when consumed - rapid onset and often noticed quickly due to vomiting and diarrhea

Clostridium Botulinum

Most deadly intoxication causes respiratory shutdown - up to 60% fatal - may occur in improperly canned foods

Staphlococcus Areus

Most common intoxication causing vomiting and diarrhea - common in nasal passages and spread by coughing and sneezing - not usually fatal

E.Coli O157:H7

From healthy cattle is an Intoxification (caused Jack in the Box illness) that may contaminate meat or vegetables causing hemolytic uremia and damaging GI tract and kidneys and causes death in some people especially young and old

Viruses

Require a living host - their genetic material produces more viruses in victims cells do not grow and reproduce in food itself - common cause is undercooked seafood - proper cooking will kill them

Norovirus

Can cause gastroenteritis (stomach flu)

Hepatitis A

Can cause infection and liver disease

Hepatitis

Can also be transmitted in raw or undercooked seafood

Aspergillis

Mold in peanuts - can cause liver disease

Cyclospora, Giardia, Cryptosporum and Trichinella

Parasites - can be problems if undercooked foods are consumed

Bovine Spongioform Encephalopathy (BSE)

Mad cow disease is caused by prions in contaminated feed and has severely damaged the British Cattle Industry

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease

Human form of mad cow - may lead to dementia and death in about 14 months and may be transmitted by brain and nervous tissue consumption - rare disease

Danger Zone (40 - 140 F)

Temperature bacteria grow best at

Heavy Metals

Mercury and lead - environmental contaminants

Carcinogens

Polychlorinated biphenyls - environmental contaminants

Persistence

Don't break down - environmental contaminants

Bioaccumulation

Larger concentrations as they move up food chain - environmental contaminants

Recombinant Bovine Somatotrophin (rBST)

Produces up to 25% more milk, but hormones are broken down to amino acids in GI tract

Antibiotics

Added to prevent animal disease in space intensive production facilities, but do contribute to antibiotic resistant bacteria which is a problem

Pesticides

Used to produce greater quantity better quality of food - most are not a problem when used properly, but cause great consumer concern

Integrated Pest Management

Alternative in production - economical and least harmful, but not often labeled as such

Organic Food

Production is more free of pesticides, but also more expensive and may not be any more nutritious

Nutritional Adequacy Concerns

Minimize losses of vitamins in cooking and storage (exposure to time, oxygen, heat may inactivate them)

Pasteurization

Heat to kill pathogens

Canning

Kill spores and pathogens

Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Remove oxygen to delay decay - prevents oxygen from ripening or causing deterioration of food in package eliminating extreme heat or cold

Polycyclic Hydrocarbons (PHA's) and Heterocyclic Amines (HCA's)

Carcinogenic - High temperatures on grill can cause these - following cooking instructions should minimize them

Acrylamide

Formed during high temperature baking and frying

Irradiation

Major cold pasteurization/sterilization method - Inhibits DNA of bacteria but does not destroy viruses - Foods must have green RADURA label

Additives

Must be effective, detectable and safe - Require much testing by manufacturer which must prove them safe to FDA

Delaney Clause

Zero risk for carcinogens

Surface Water

Subject to contamination but easily treated (O2 & light)

Ground Water

Harder to treat and many individual wells (fragmented control & not exposed to O2 & light)

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